Types of Psychology. AIM: What are some Important Psychological Experiments?. What is Experimental Psychology?. Experimental Psychology is the use of the scientific method to understand behavior and the processes that cause a behavior.
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The switches were labeled with terms including "slight shock," "moderate shock" and "danger: severe shock." The final two switches were labeled simply with an ominous "XXX.“
Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks while 14 stopped before reaching the highest levels.
"Ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process. Moreover, even when the destructive effects of their work become patently clear, and they are asked to carry out actions incompatible with fundamental standards of morality, relatively few people have the resources needed to resist authority" (Milgram, 1974).
The simulated prison included three six by nine foot prison cells. Each cell held three prisoners and included three cots.
Philip Zimbardo, who acted as the prison warden, overlooked the abusive behavior of the prison guards until one of the graduate students objected to the conditions
The Stanford Prison Experiment is frequently cited as an example of unethical research.
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I\'ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggar man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years." –John B. Watson, Behaviorism, 1930
Pavlov conducted a famous experiment using Classical Conditioning
Id- the “container” of instinctual urges.
Inhibits the socially undesirable impulses of the id.
The personality process that is mostly conscious.