Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values
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[ Module 1] City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values. City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values. What is urban sanitation ?. Status and common threats of sanitation in Indian cities. NUSP and former policy schemes targeting sanitation. Rationale and added value of a CSP.

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[ Module 1] City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values

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Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

[Module 1]City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

City Sanitation Plan - Relevance and added values

Whatis urban sanitation?

Status and common threats of sanitation in Indian cities

NUSP and former policy schemes targeting sanitation

Rationale and added value of a CSP

Rating ofsanitation in yourcity


Sanitation definition

Sanitation – Definition

Safe management of human excreta including its safe confinement, collection, treatment, disposal and associated hygiene-related practices (NUSP).


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Sanitation and public health

Quiz: Are you aware of the faecal - oral transmission route

P

The schemeshowsthefaecal – oral transmission route ofpathogenswhichcancausesevereproblemsforpublicand individual health.

The fourellipses in thecentersymbolizefourpossibletransmissionpathsforpathogens. These canbecontrolledbyvariousstrategiesmakinguseofprimaryandsecondarybarriers.

Assignthefollowingfourtermstothecorrecttransmissionpathsconsideringtheeffectsofpossibleprimaryandsecondarybarriers:

Fingers, Fields, Flies, Fluids

S

P

P

S

S

Newhost

Food

Faeces

P

Modified & developed (Dabrase, Pramod; Bank, Peter , 2012) after (1)


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Sanitation and public health

Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the faecal - oral transmission route

  • 1 gram of excreta can contain

    • 1,00,00,000 viruses

    • 10,00,000 bacteria

    • 1,000 parasite cysts

    • 100 parasite eggs

    • Each time an adult human defecates about 250 gram of excreta

  • Food sanitation and improved sanitation can reduce diarrheal morbidity –

  • Hand washing with soap: 30%

  • Point of use Water treatment : 39%

  • Sanitation (toilet): 32%

Common diseases are:

Diarrhoea, Cholera, Malaria, Intestinal worms, Hepatitis, Typhoid, Polio, Ascariasis

Fluid

P

P

S

Fields

S

Newhost

Food

Faeces

Flies

Fingers

P

Modified & developed (Dabrase, Pramod; Bank, Peter , 2012) after (1)


Impacts of inadequate sanitation

Impacts of inadequate sanitation

Human health

  • Global death toll: more than 2.2 million people per year, mostly children under age of 5 years

  • 17% of total deaths among children under age of 5

  • In India more than 2,000 children below 5 years die every day

Gender aspects

Women & girls face drudgery & serious health disorders – due to lack and dirtiness of toilets, lack of private places, long waiting time

Girls lose school days, discontinue schools

High rate of crimes and violence against women - when they are out for defecation

Indirect impacts

Contamination and eutrophication of the environment (soils, ground water, water bodies)

Reduced ecosystem services

Reduced value of properties,

Reduced income from tourism

Reduced scenic beauty

Economy

More than 2 billions of human hours lost annually

Economic costs related to health care expenses = INR 212 billion/year

Productivity loss due to helath problems caused by inadequate sanitation = INR 217 billion/year


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Answer to quiz: Are you aware of the economic impacts of inadequate sanitation in India?


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Black water consists of waste water from toilets. Major difference between grey water and black water is its pollution load (carry diseases causing pathogens) making black water harmful to human beings

Waters to be managed by urban sanitation

Storm water runoffcan be polluted / loaded with septic tank overflow, faeces, pet waste, oil, heavy metals, organic pollutants etc.

Grey water consists of waste water from bathroom, laundry, etc.


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Sanitation scheme

decentralizedon-site sanitation

Leach Pit

Leaching field

Land Application

decentralizedon-site / off-site sanitation

Septic Tank

Emptying

Transportation

User Interface /toilet

Sewage Treatment Plant

centralized off-site sanitation

Drying Beds

Conveyance


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Sanitation scheme in future – ecological sanitation: from linear to closed loop

Source: Water and Wastewater in Asia - The Imperative for New Approaches to Urban WaterandWastewaterManagement, ADB & Partners Conference, Manila, 12 October, 2010, Paul Reiter, Executive Director, International WaterAssociation


Status and challenges for sanitation in indian cities

Status and challenges for sanitation in Indian cities

Source: Centre for Science and Environment (2012): Excreta Matters – A profile oft he water and sewage situation in 71 Indian cities (Citizen’s Seventh Report on the State of India’s Environment)

Source: MoUD (GTZ-ASEM Consultation workshop on City Sanitation Plans, April 16th, 2010, New Delhi):

  • between 28-40% of the households are connected to a sewage system, whilst 34-46% rely on often uncontrolled on site disposal,

  • This ends up in safe disposal of human excreta of only 18-52% of Indian households, whilst excreta of 48-82% of the households are disposed unsafe


Status and challenges for sanitation in indian cities1

Status and challenges for sanitation in Indian cities

Infra-structure

Access to service

Institutional Arrangeents

Service usage

http://www.cstindustries.com/applications/industrial/


Funding schemes before nusp

Funding schemes before NUSP


Introduction to national urban sanitation policy nusp

Introduction to National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP)

Awareness Generation and Behaviour Change

Achieving Open Defecation Free Cities

Achieving Integrated City-Wide Sanitation

Vision

All cities & towns become

totally sanitized, healthy and liveable ,

and ensure and sustain good public health and environmental outcomes for all their citizens

with a special focus on hygienic and affordable sanitation facilities for the urban poor and women.

Specific goals

MOUD, GOI launched a NUSP to address all aspects related to urban sanitation in a comprehensive manner on November 12, 2008.


Nusp implementation strategy

NUSP - Implementation strategy

Instruments GoI

NUSP

States

Cities

  • Assistance to prepare DPRs

  • PPP for key projects

  • Funding of projects under existing schemes:

    • national and state level,

    • PPP,

    • external funding agencies

  • Support clarification of institutional roles and responsibilities

  • National information, education and communication strategy

  • National capacity building strategy

  • M&E: Periodic rating of cities

State Sanitation Strategies

City Sanitation Plans

State Rewards Scheme

Detailed Project Reports

Implementation


Csp as a framework to formulate solutions for the illustrated problem areas

CSP as a framework to formulate solutions for the illustrated problem areas

Support pillars

Governanceandinstitutionalframework

Awarenessgeneration & behaviouralchange

Capacitybuilding

Financial sustainability

Technology options

Components

Access totoilets

Wastewatermanagement

Action plan

Strategy

River pollutionandstormwatermamnagement

Watersupply

Base line

Solid wastemanagement


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

CSP as a framework to formulate solutions for the illustrated problem areas

City Sanitation Planning as a participatory planning process

Capacitybuilding


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Responsibilities and tasks of municipalities related to sanitation (as per 74th Constitutional Amendment)

  • Policy formulation, regulatory role, and institutional provisions

  • Financial provisions

  • Establishing & administrating the specific boards

  • Monitoring and rewards

State


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Activity: Rating of sanitation in your hometown – status of achievement of NUSP goals

  • Rate the implementation of urban sanitation services / status of achievement of NUSP goals in your municipality marking the specific rating score

  • The scores have the following meaning:

    • -2: item not existing

    • -1: item requires remarkable improvement

    • 0: situation reasonable

    • +1: good situation / performance

    • +2: best practice example, should be shared

  • Transfer your individual rating to the poster


Module 1 city sanitation plan relevance and added values

Thank you very much

Indo-German Environment Programme (IGEP)

Deutsche Gesellschaft für

Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH 

Sustainable Urban Habitat

B-5/2, First Floor,

Safdurjung Encalve, New Delhi-110029,

Tel: +91-11-49495300/01/02


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