Immigration after 1880
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Immigration after 1880. TN Curriculum Standards:. 1.0-Understand how industrial development affected the United States culture. Understand how the influx of immigrants after 1880 affected U. S. culture.

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Immigration after 1880

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Immigration after 1880


TN Curriculum Standards:

  • 1.0-Understand how industrial development affected the United States culture.

  • Understand how the influx of immigrants after 1880 affected U. S. culture.

    SPI 6.4- Identify patterns of immigration and the causal factors that led to immigration to the U.S.

    SPI 6.5- Distinguish the differences in assimilation of “old” vs. “new” immigration.

    SPI 6.6- Read and interpret a primary source document reflecting the dynamics of the Gilded Age of American Society.


Melting Pot: theory vs. reality


The “Old” Immigrants

  • From 1800-1880, more than 10 million immigrants came to the U.S.

  • They were mostly Protestants from Northwestern Europe.

  • This group would be referred to as the “old” immigrants.

  • They were accepted into American culture.


“Old” Immigrants

The “old” immigrants were accepted because:

  • They looked the same

  • Spoke the same languages as the Americans who were already here

  • Worshipped the same .


The “New” immigrants

  • From 1891-1910, a new wave of immigrants came to the U.S.

  • They came from Southern or Eastern Europe (Czech, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Polish, Russian, and Slovaks, Arabs, Armenians, Chinese, French Canadians, and Japanese).

  • They were not as accepted as the old immigrants.


The “New” Immigrants

  • They looked different.

  • They worshipped differently.

  • They spoke different languages.


Reasons for Coming to the U.S.

  • Plenty of land and work

  • Higher standard of living

  • Democratic political system

  • Opportunity for social advancement


The Journey


Immigrants (Below deck) in the steerage


Reaching America


Arriving in America


Nativist political cartoon


A New Life

  • Many immigrants found that that the U.S. offered them a better life than in their homeland.

  • Others that settled in crowded cities faced many hardships.

  • They could only find low-paying (unskilled) jobs.

  • As a result of this, they were generally forced into poor housing in/near neighborhood slums.


Tenement Housing


A New Life

  • Immigrant/Ethnic Communities- pockets of diverse immigrant communities where they were able to find institutions and neighbors that help them make the transition financially and culturally into American life.

  • Religious institutions- neighborhood churches, synagogues, and temples provided community centers that helped immigrants maintain a sense of identity and belonging.


A New Life


Immigrant labor


Settling into Ethnic Communities


Ethnic Communities


Chinese Immigration


Chinese laborers (late 1800s)


Nativism


Nativism


Reasons Nativists were against Immigration

  • They believed that there were more Catholic immigrants coming in than there were Protestant Americans.

  • They feared that they would undermine the labor unions by working for less.

  • Nativists began to form anti-immigrant organizations. These organizations agreed not to hire or vote for any Catholics.


Anti-Catholic political cartoon


Anti-Irish Sentiment


Anti-Irish Ads/political cartoons


Chinese Exclusion


Chinese Exclusion

  • Legislators (particularly in CA) passed laws that banned Chinese immigration for 10 years. Chinese immigrants that were already in the country were banned from becoming citizens.

  • Although the Chinese protested by campaigning and suing in court, Congress did not lift the ban until 1943 (41 years later).

  • When Japanese immigration increased, the San Francisco Board of Education required Chinese, Japanese, and Korean children to attend racially segregated schools.


Chinese Exclusion

  • Before, this had only applied to Chinese school-age children.

  • When Japanese officials in Japan found out about the forced segregation, they were furious. They voiced their concerns with then president Theodore (Teddy Roosevelt) and he struck a deal with the school board.

  • He agreed to pass legislation to limit Japanese immigration in exchange for them integrating the school for Asian immigrants. This deal became known as the Gentlemen’s Agreement.

  • Legislators would later propose giving immigrants literacy tests before they could be admitted to the U. S.


Chinese Exclusion


Separation by Class (pg. 224 in text)

  • The wealthy, the middle class, and the working class (poor) lived in separate sections of town (much like today).

  • Because of industry, more Americans moved from working class to middle class. The middle class was mostly made up of doctors, lawyers, engineers, teachers, social workers,…etc.

  • As they began to make more money, they began to move further away from the city (to escape crime and pollution).

  • Most middle class families at this time had at least one live-in servant.


The Working Poor


Jacob Riis forced poverty awareness with his writings and his pictures about the slums


Jacob Riis’s photos


Riis’s photos


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