Unit 1 three worlds collide
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Unit 1: Three Worlds Collide. Learning Targets 1 - 18. What’s In Your Wallet?. Purpose: Activity to explore the difference between primary and secondary sources. Have students exchange item with another and study it for what it may offer as historical evidence; Questions to consider:

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Unit 1: Three Worlds Collide

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Unit 1 three worlds collide

Unit 1: Three Worlds Collide

Learning Targets 1 - 18


What s in your wallet

What’s In Your Wallet?

  • Purpose: Activity to explore the difference between primary and secondary sources.

  • Have students exchange item with another and study it for what it may offer as historical evidence;

  • Questions to consider:

    • What type of document/artifact is it?

    • Can it be dated?

    • What is most interesting about it?

    • What does its existence suggest about its owner?

    • What does it suggest about American society?

    • What doesn’t it convey of its owner/time period?


Unit 1 three worlds collide

1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history.

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

  • A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event.

  • A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them.


Unit 1 three worlds collide

1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history.

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

  • Some types of primary sources include:

    • ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records

    • CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry, drama, novels, music, art

    • RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings

  • Some types of secondary sources include:

    • PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias


Unit 1 three worlds collide

1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history.

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources

  • Examples of primary sources include:

    • Diary of Anne Frank - Experiences of a Jewish family during WWII

    • The Constitution of Canada - Canadian History

    • A journal article reporting NEW research or findings

    • Weavings and pottery - Native American history

    • Plato's Republic - Women in Ancient Greece

  • Examples of secondary sources include:

    • A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings

    • A history textbook

    • A book about the effects of WWI


Unit 1 three worlds collide

1. I can explain the importance of examining multiple primaryand secondary sources to gain an accurate representation of history.

Primary Sources

Secondary Sources


Unit 1 three worlds collide

CAQ

  • What if history/only historical documentation was fed to you by the winner?

    • Example: textbooks about US History written by US citizens


2 i can identify the motives of columbus and his crew

2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew.

  • “As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.”

  • Columbus’ Log

  • “Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful ... the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . . . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals....”

  • Columbus’ Log

  • “The Indians, Columbus reported, "are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone...." He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage "as much gold as they need ... and as many slaves as they ask." He was full of religious talk: "Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities.“

  • Zinn

  • "Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold.“

  • Columbus’ Log


2 i can identify the motives of columbus and his crew1

2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew.

  • The “3 G’s”

    • Gold

      • God

        • Glory


2 i can identify the motives of columbus and his crew2

2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew.

  • “They ... brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks' bells. They willingly traded everything they owned... . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features.... They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane... . They would make fine servants.... With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.”

  • Columbus’ Log


2 i can identify the motives of columbus and his crew3

2. I can identify the motives of Columbus and his crew.

  • Which of these do you believe was most important to Columbus and his crew?

    Gold

    God

    Glory


3 i can describe the treatment of native americans by the spaniards

3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards.


3 i can describe the treatment of native americans by the spaniards1

3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards.

  • “On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor.”

  • Zinn

  • “Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships. Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route.”

  • Zinn

  • “But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death.”

  • Zinn


3 i can describe the treatment of native americans by the spaniards2

3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards.

  • Bartolomé de las Casas (1484– 1566)

    • a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar

  • became the first officially appointed “Protector of the Indians”

  • his extensive writings, the most famous being A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indiesand Historia de Las Indias,

    • chronicle the first decades of colonization of the West Indies

    • focus particularly on the atrocities committed by the colonizers against the indigenous peoples


3 i can describe the treatment of native americans by the spaniards3

3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards.

  • “The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed.”

  • Zinn

  • “Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses. When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead.”

  • Zinn

  • “Las Casas tells how the Spaniards "grew more conceited every day" and after a while refused to walk any distance. They "rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry" or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. "In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to fan them with goose wings.“

  • Zinn

  • “Total control led to total cruelty. The Spaniards "thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades." Las Casas tells how "two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys.“

  • Zinn


3 i can describe the treatment of native americans by the spaniards4

3. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the Spaniards.


4 i can predict how columbus s actions will impact future colonization in the americas

4. I can predict how Columbus’s actions will impact future colonization in the Americas.

  • Diseases

    • immunity

    • smallpox, measles, mumps, chickenpox, typhus

    • wipes out estimated 90% of Native-American populations

  • Ethnocentrism

    • belief in racial, cultural, national superiority over others

  • Trade

    • Mercantilist doctrine of accumulation of wealth vs. communal respect for nature

    • Columbian Exchange (p. 30-31)


Unit 1 three worlds collide

The Columbian Exchange


5 i can debate the merit of columbus day as a national holdiay

5. I can debate the merit of Columbus Day as a national holdiay.

  • Pro’s

  • Con’s


5 i can debate the merit of columbus day as a national holdiay1

5. I can debate the merit of Columbus Day as a national holdiay.

  • Pro’s

  • In sailing west to the Far East, he accidently “discovered” land previously unknown to contemporary Europeans.

  • His achievement resulted in a permanent relationship between Europe and the America’s.

  • His was 1st step in a long process that produced the United States, a new democratic society.

  • The discovery was an essential factor in ushering in the modern age.


5 i can debate the merit of columbus day as a national holdiay2

5. I can debate the merit of Columbus Day as a national holdiay.

Con’s

  • His brutal actions toward Native-Americans were unnecessarily cruel and plainly immoral and are not worthy of any national holiday.

  • Considering a holiday from the viewpoint of Native Americans, who were here far before Columbus, seems insensitive and inconsiderate.

  • Columbus opened an era of genocide, cruelty, and slavery on a larger scale than ever seen before.

  • As a country, how does it make us look to the world to celebrate a man who committed such heinous acts?


6 i can discuss the various ways in which europeans impacted the lives of native americans

6. I can discuss the various ways in which Europeans impacted the lives of Native Americans.


6 i can discuss the various ways in which europeans impacted the lives of native americans1

6. I can discuss the various ways in which Europeans impacted the lives of Native Americans.


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

Religious

  • Protestant Reformation

    • Henry VIII

    • Puritans

      • Separatists

        • Mayflower

          • Plymouth

          • Massachusetts Bay (p. 52)

      • John Winthrop

        • “City Upon A Hill”

        • A “theocracy”

          • Yet, beginnings of separation of church and state


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization1

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

  • Massachusetts Bay p. 52

    • Family life

      • Community interference if necessary;

    • Dissent?

      • Roger Williams & Anne Hutchinson

    • Native American Relations

      • from beginning, trade, agricultural advice from Native groups to colonists;

      • disease and loss of land results in conflict;

        • Pequot War

        • King Philip’s War


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization2

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

  • Massachusetts Bay p. 52

    • Puritanism

      • group of Protestants in 16th century within the Church of England

      • demanded simplification of doctrine and worship

      • advocated greater strictness in religious discipline

    • puritan (lowercase)

      • a person who is strict in moral or religious matters, often excessively so!

    • Puritan (Protestant) work ethic

      • “idle hands are the devil’s workshop”


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization3

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

  • Massachusetts Bay p. 52

    • sarcophagus lid of Henry Adams (composed by John Adams)

      • “This stone and several others have been placed in this yard by a great, great, grandson from a veneration of the piety, humility, simplicity, prudence, frugality, industry, and perseverance of his ancestors in hopes of recommending an affirmation of their virtues to their posterity.”

        • identify and discuss the values of the Puritans contained within this quote


Bonus knowledge

Bonus Knowledge

  • Words of Wisdom and to Live By

    • by John Adams

      • “The longer I live, the more I read, the more patiently I think, and the more anxiously I inquire, the less I seem to know…. Do justly. Love mercy. Walk humbly. This is enough…. So questions and so answers your affectionate grandfather.”

        • to grand-daughter Caroline in response to her quandary over the riddles of life


Bonus knowledge1

Bonus Knowledge

  • Words of Wisdom and to Live By

    • by John Adams

      • “This phrase “rejoice ever more” shall never be out of my heart, memory, or mouth again as long as I live, if I can help it.”

      • “Griefs upon griefs! Disappointments upon disappointments. What then? This is a gay, merry world notwithstanding.”


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization4

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

  • Pennsylvania p. 59

    • William Penn

      • The Quaker “Holy Experiment”

        • “inner light” in each person

        • services without formal ministers

        • dressed plainly

        • no deference to persons of rank

        • embraced pacifism

          • no military service

      • No land-owning aristocracy

        • Adult male settlers receive 50 acres of land & right to vote


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization5

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

  • Pennsylvania p. 59

    • Government

      • a representative assembly

      • freedom of religion

    • Native-American Relations

      • “people approached in friendship respond in friendship”

      • letter to the Delaware – p. 60

      • paid the Delaware for their land

      • regulated trade between tribes and colonists

      • set up a court for adjudication of disputes

      • no disputes for over 50 years!


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization6

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

Economic

  • Unemployment

  • Desire for markets

  • Joint-stock companies

  • Accumulation of surplus capital/profit

  • Mercantilism

  • Raw materials

  • Markets

  • Land


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization7

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

  • Jamestown p.44

    • Joint-stock company

      • Virginia Company

    • Tobacco cultivation

      • John Rolfe

    • Indentured servants

      • leads to Bacon’s Rebellion and slavery

    • Native-American Relations

      • English vs. Spanish patterns of settlement

        • mestizovs mulatto

      • colonial desire for land & crop space leads to warfare

      • Anglo-Powhatan Wars I & II


7 i can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization8

7. I can identify and evaluate the different motives of colonization.

Social &

Political

The Enlightenment

John Locke

“social contract”

“natural rights”

Enclosure movement

Desire for adventure

Opposition to monarchical form of gov’t

Establish military and naval outposts


8 i can describe the treatment of native americans by the british

8. I can describe the treatment of Native Americans by the British.


Unit 1 three worlds collide

9. I can compare and contrast the ways in which Jamestown settlers and the Quakers interacted with Native Americans.

Jamestown

Quakers

  • English “drive away” Natives

    • As opposed to Spanish policy/mestizo’s

    • No desire to live among or intermarry

  • leaders demanded “tributes” of corn and labor from Powhatan

  • set villages afire, kidnapped hostages, children

  • colonists continue onto Natives land to cultivate tobacco

  • Powhatan attack frontier settlements

  • colonists respond with force

    • “people approached in friendship respond in friendship”

  • letter to the Delaware – p. 60

  • paid the Delaware for their land

  • regulated trade between tribes and colonists

  • set up a court for adjudication of disputes

  • no disputes for over 50 years!


  • 10 i can discuss the hardships that were faced in jamestown and massachusetts bay

    10. I can discuss the hardships that were facedin Jamestown and Massachusetts Bay.

    Jamestown

    Massachusetts Bay

    • little work toward establishing a settlement

    • time spent searching for gold

    • disease from infected river water

    • hunger

    • conflict with Powhatans

      • Anglo-Powhatan Wars I & II

    • “the starving time”

    • rebellion of dispossessed

    • short growing season

    • rocky soil

    • un-navigable rivers

    • harsh climate

    • harsh Puritan laws

      • fate of dissenters

    • family growth leads to demand for land

      • which leads to conflict with Native-Americans


    11 i can recognize the existence of social class conflict in jamestown

    11. I can recognize the existence of social class conflict in Jamestown.

    • In 1676 the forty-thousand inhabitants of the Virginia colony were confronted by an uprising that came to be called Bacon’s Rebellion. Led by 29-year old Nathaniel Bacon, related to Governor Berkeley and a member of the House of Burgesses, the revolt centered on frontier Indian policy, high taxes, and the actions of a small group of wealthy planters Bacon referred to as “unworthy favorites and juggling parasites.” Although unsuccessful, Bacon’s Rebellion forced social changes in Virginia and the event itself continues to be debated by historians.


    Unit 1 three worlds collide

    “¼ of the white Virginian population were former indentured servants..”


    11 i can recognize the existence of social class conflict in jamestown1

    11. I can recognize the existence of social class conflict in Jamestown.

    • “High taxes, low prices for tobacco, and resentment against special privileges given those close to the governor, Sir William Berkeley, provided the background for the uprising..”

    • “Times were hard in 1676. ‘There was genuine distress, genuine poverty….All contemporary sources speak of the great mass of people as living in severe economic straits,’

    • Wilcomb Washburn…” –Zinn pg. 34


    11 i can recognize the existence of social class conflict in jamestown2

    11. I can recognize the existence of social class conflict in Jamestown.

    “The poverty of the country is such that all the power and sway has got into the hands of the rich, who by extortions advantages, having the common people in their debt, have always curbed and oppressed them in all manner of ways.”

    -Nathaniel Bacon

    “Bacon’s rebellion spurred the planter class to cling more tightly to power”

    -The Americans


    11 i can recognize the existence of social class conflict in jamestown3

    11. I can recognize the existence of social class conflict in Jamestown.

    • Freed “indentured servants” (“rabble”) on Virginia frontier

    • Native-American disputes arise over land, attacks on whites

    • Governor William Berkeley (representing the “planter class) refuses military action

    • Nathaniel Bacon fights Native-Americans/deemed “illegal” by Governor Berkeley

      • marches on Jamestown

        • opposes Native-American policy & lack of representation in House of Burgesses

      • burns Jamestown

    • Bacon dies, Rebellion put down, Virginia turns to “less troublesome” laborers (African slaves)


    12 i can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today

    12. I can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today.

    Colonial class conflict

    Modern class conflict

    • Bacon’s Rebellion – 1676

      • wealthy gov’t officials v. frontier farmers;

    • Leisler’s Rebellion – 1689

      • “lordly landholders v. aspiring merchants”;

    • Revolt of the Paxton Boys – 1764

      • protest lenient gov’t Native American policy;

    • Regulator Movement – 1768

      • overtaxed backcountry settlers v. corrupt gov’t.

    • Shay’s Rebellion - 1787

      • closed courts to forestall foreclosure of farms due to high taxes

    • Occupy Wall Street Movement

      • 99% vs. 1 %

    • Top 1% owns approx. 35% of all US wealth (2007)

    • Poverty Statistics

      • 15% in US

      • 16.2 million children

    • Tea Party Movement

      • concerned with gov’t spending and debt


    12 i can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today1

    12. I can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today.


    12 i can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today2

    12. I can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today.

    Forbes 400

    One of the most visible indicators of wealth inequality in the United States is the list of the 400 richest Americans published by Forbes magazine every year. The total inflation-adjusted net worth of the Forbes 400 rose from $507 billion in 1995 to $1.62 trillion in 2007, before dropping back to $1.37 trillion in 2010.


    12 i can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today3

    12. I can relate social class conflict in the colonies to social class issues today.


    Unit 1 three worlds collide

    The world’s 1,210 current billionaires, Forbes reported in March 2011, hold a combined wealth that equals over half the total wealth of the 3.01 billion adults around the world who, according to Credit Suisse, hold under $10,000 in net worth.

    Sources: “The World’s Billionaires,” Forbes Magazine, March 9, 2011 and Credit Suisse Research Institute, Global Wealth Report, October 2010.


    13 i can recognize the existence of hysteria in massachusetts bay

    13. I can recognize the existence of hysteria in Massachusetts Bay.

    • Salem Witchcraft Trials

      • Strict limitations on women’s roles

        • accusations to those thought “too independent”

      • Uneven economic prosperity

        • charges brought by less prosperous toward more prosperous

      • Strained relations with Native-Americans

        • preoccupied with violence and death

      • Misdirected religious zeal

    • Hysteria results as false accusations proliferate


    14 i can relate hysteria in the colonies to hysteria today

    14. I can relate hysteria in the colonies to hysteria today.

    Colonial hysteria

    Modern hysteria

    • Native Americans treated very poorly

    • English/Spanish colonists felt superior to Native Americans, saw them as vulgar and unsophisticated

    • English/Spanish colonists began to see the Native Americans as a threat to “their” land and riches

    • Salem Witch Trials

    • Palmer Raids

      • fear of communism in 1920’s

      • mass deportations

    • Red Scare

      • fear of Communism in 1950’s

    • Nativist sentiment toward immigrants

      • English as national language

      • build a wall between US & Mexico

    • War on Terror

      • Post 9-11

      • fear of Muslim extremism

      • Patriot Act


    15 i can predict how british settlers actions will impact future colonization in the americas

    15. I can predict how British settlers’ actions will impact future colonization in the Americas.


    15 i can predict how british settlers actions will impact future colonization in the americas1

    15. I can predict how British settlers’ actions will impact future colonization in the Americas.


    16 i can differentiate the experiences of native americans africans and europeans

    16. I can differentiate the experiences of Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans.

    • Native-Americans

      • death by disease

        • est. 90% of indigenous population of New World

      • loss of commonly-held land

        • hunting/ burial, lands

      • war

        • Anglo-Powhatan, Pequot, etc…

      • victims of ethnocentric attitude of European’s

        • believed their culture superior

        • Native culture undervalued, de-valued, destroyed!


    16 i can differentiate the experiences of native americans africans and europeans1

    16. I can differentiate the experiences of Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans.

    • Africans

      • victim’s of slave trade

        • captured, transported, enslaved

          • Middle Passage

      • loss of basic human rights

        • became “chattel”

      • overworked from sun-up to sun-down, 24-7

      • suffered at times, severe punishments

        • whippings, break-up of families, amputations, etc…


    16 i can differentiate the experiences of native americans africans and europeans2

    16. I can differentiate the experiences of Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans.

    • Europeans

      • obtained vast stretches of land

        • headright system

      • acquired vast diversity of natural resources

        • fertile land, forests/timber, rivers/fish/naval stores,

      • dominated social, political, economic life of New World

        • became artisans, lawyers, planters, merchants, manufacturers, traders, shippers, farmers, clergy, doctors, politicians, etc…

      • beneficiaries of slave labor


    17 i can compare and contrast the economic systems of the north and south

    17. I can compare and contrast the economic systems of the North and South.

    North

    South

    • Mercantilist Doctrine

      • wealth (gold & silver), raw materials, colonies, markets

    • Diversification

      • wheat, corn, cattle, hogs, etc…

      • surplus sold in foreign markets

    • Industry & Commerce

      • harvesting, grinding, sawing, …

      • manufacturing, shipping, mining, smelting

      • growth of merchants!

    • Port cities, towns, urban life

      • crowding, unsanitary, poverty

      • diverse immigrant laborer’s

    • Slavery

      • Still property, racial prejudice

      • Could sue, appeal in courts

    • Plantation economy

      • rural, agrarian lifestyle

      • cash crops

        • tobacco, rice, indigo, cotton

    • Few cities, ports, towns

    • Indentured servants

      • 1/2 -2/3 of white male immigrants after 1630

    • Slavery

      • life-long service offset cost

      • whites saw blacks as inferior

      • 1690 – 13,000/1750 – 200,000

      • Middle Passage/Triangular Trade

      • field v. house slaves: 85%-15%


    18 i can describe and evaluate colonists feelings about immigration during colonization

    18. I can describe and evaluate colonists’ feelings about immigration during colonization.

    • “I am perfectly of your mind, that measures of great Temper are necessary with the Germans … Those who come hither are generally of the most ignorant Stupid Sort of their own Nation, … Their own Clergy have very little influence over the people; who seem to take an uncommon pleasure in abusing and discharging the Minister on every trivial occasion. … that they are not esteemed men till they have shewn their manhood by beating their mothers, so these seem to think themselves not free, till they can feel their liberty in abusing and insulting their Teachers.”

    • Ben Franklin


    18 i can describe and evaluate colonists feelings about immigration during colonization1

    18. I can describe and evaluate colonists’ feelings about immigration during colonization.

    • “Thus they are under no restraint of Ecclesiastical Government; They behave, however, submissively enough at present to the Civil Government which I wish they may continue to do: For I remember when they modestly declined intermeddling in our Elections, but now they come in droves, and carry all before them, except in one or two Counties; Few of their children in the Country learn English; they import many Books from Germany; and of the six printing houses in the Province, two are entirely German, two half German half English, and but two entirely English; They have one German News-paper, and one half German. Advertisements intended to be general are now printed in Dutch and English; the Signs in our Streets have inscriptions in both languages, and in some places only German: They begin of late to make all their Bonds and other legal Writings in their own Language, which (though I think it ought not to be) are allowed good in our Courts, where the German Business so increases that there is continual need of Interpreters; and I suppose in a few years they will be also necessary in the Assembly, to tell one half of our Legislators what the other half say; In short unless the stream of their importation could be turned from this to other colonies, as you very judiciously propose, they will soon so out number us, that all the advantages we have will not in My Opinion be able to preserve our language, and even our Government will become precarious.”

    • Ben Franklin


    18 i can describe and evaluate colonists feelings about immigration during colonization2

    18. I can describe and evaluate colonists’ feelings about immigration during colonization.

    • “Yet I am not for refusing entirely to admit them into our Colonies: all that seems to be necessary is, to distribute them more equally, mix them with the English, establish English Schools where they are now too thick settled, and take some care to prevent the practice lately fallen into by some of the Ship Owners, of sweeping the German Goals to make up the number of their Passengers. I say I am not against the Admission of Germans in general, for they have their Virtues, their industry and frugality is exemplary; They are excellent husbandmen and contribute greatly to the improvement of a Country.”

    • Ben Franklin


    18 i can describe and evaluate colonists feelings about immigration during colonization3

    18. I can describe and evaluate colonists’ feelings about immigration during colonization.

    • In 1700, there were about 250,000 Europeans and African Americans in the colonies. By 1775, that number had increased 10-fold to 2.5 million. This huge increase was due in part to a prolific birth rate and in part to a steady flow of immigrants into the country.The most concentrated period of migration to America occurred in the fifteen years prior to the American Revolution, when approximately 220,000 new faces arrived on the eastern seaboard. About 85,000 of these were African Americans. Scotch-Irish, Scots, English and Germans constituted the bulk of the remaining immigrants.

    • http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/popup_diversity.html


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