The progressive era
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The Progressive Era. Industrialization and urbanization had helped the U.S. grow economically, but created a number of problems (overcrowding , food safety, working conditions, child labor, inequality, government corruption, etc.). The Progressive Era.

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The Progressive Era

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The progressive era

The Progressive Era

  • Industrialization and urbanization had helped the U.S. grow economically, but created a number of problems (overcrowding, food safety, working conditions, child labor, inequality, government corruption, etc.)


The progressive era1

The Progressive Era

  • The laissez-faire economic policies of the government during the Gilded Age allowed people to get taken advantage of by big businesses.


The progressive era2

The Progressive Era

  • The Progressive Era was a period between 1890 and 1920 in which people tried to fix all of the problems that had been created by industrialization and urbanization and improve society.


Muckrakers

Muckrakers

  • Muckrakers were journalists who brought the problems of industrialization to the public’s attention through newspaper/magazine stories.

    • These journalists were called muckrakers by President Theodore Roosevelt because they uncovered (raked) the dirt and corruption (muck) in society.


Muckrakers1

Muckrakers

  • Muckrakers hoped that by exposing the problems of society they could encourage people and the government to take action to solve the problems.


Muckrakers2

Muckrakers

  • Jacob Riis wrote a series of stories called How the Other Half Lives about the horrible living conditions of immigrants and the urban poor in major cities.


Muckrakers3

Muckrakers

  • Upton Sinclair was a journalist who wrote The Jungle to expose the horribly unsanitary conditions of the meatpacking industry.


The progressive era

  • Excerpt from The Jungle


Muckrakers4

Muckrakers

  • Ida Tarbell was a journalist whose father had been run out of business by Rockefeller.

    • She wrote The History of Standard Oil to expose the company’s unfair and corrupt business practices.


Muckrakers5

Muckrakers

  • Lincoln Steffens was a journalist who wrote The Shame of Cities to expose the corruption of political machines and big business in cities.


Progressives reform society

Progressives Reform Society

  • The work of muckrakers increased popular support for Progressivism.

    • Progressive activists began to take action to improve society and make American life better.

    • Focused on issues like crime, illiteracy, poverty, child labor, health, and workplace safety.

    • Pushed for new laws to fix social problems.


The social gospel movement

The Social Gospel Movement

  • The Social Gospel Movement was a reform movement that sought to improve society by applying Christian principles to social problems.

    • By following biblical teachings about charity and justice, people could make society like “the kingdom of God.”

    • Social Gospel reformers opened orphanages, soup kitchens, daycares, etc.


The settlement house movement

The Settlement House Movement

  • Settlement Houses were community centers that provided social services to the urban poor.

    • Taught English to immigrants, ran kindergartens, and offered education to working adults.


The settlement house movement1

The Settlement House Movement

  • Jane Addams was the leader of the Settlement House Movement.

    • In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago which became a model for settlement houses.

    • By 1911, the country had more than 400 settlement houses.


The campaign against child labor

The Campaign Against Child Labor

  • Child labor was very common at this time and millions of children under the age of 16 had full time jobs as soon as they were able to work.

    • Many children were injured or died doing dangerous factory and mining work in terrible conditions for very little pay.


The campaign against child labor1

The Campaign Against Child Labor

  • Progressive reformers convinced states to pass laws that set a minimum age for employment, set a maximum amount of hours children could work per week, and established compulsory education laws.

    • By the early 1900’s the number of child laborers had begun to decline.


Improvements in working conditions

Improvements in Working Conditions

  • In the early 1900’s the U.S. had the highest rate of industrial accidents in the world (30 thousand died, half a million injured every year).

    • Long hours, poor ventilation, hazardous fumes, and unsafe machinery threatened workers health and lives.


Improvements in working conditions1

Improvements in Working Conditions

  • In March 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire killed 146 young female factory workers.

    • Managers had locked most of the exits to prevent workers from taking breaks and the fire hoses did not work.


Improvements in working conditions2

Improvements in Working Conditions

  • Outrage at the deaths inspired many reforms.

    • Cities pass strict building codes dealing with fire escapes and machinery to improve workplace safety.

    • Many states also adopted workers compensation laws, which set up funds to pay workers who were hurt on the job or pay the families of workers who had died.


Reforming government

Reforming Government

  • Progressive reformers realized that in order to change society, they needed to change government.

    • Wanted to give common people more control over the actions of their government.

    • Wanted to free the government from the control of corrupt political machines and powerful businesses.


Reforming government1

Reforming Government

  • Progressives wanted to make sure elected officials followed citizens wishes and give people a greater voice in their government.

    • The initiative allowed people to propose a law and put it directly on the ballot for the next election by collecting citizens’ signatures on a petition.


Reforming government2

Reforming Government

  • The referendum allowed citizens to approve or reject laws passed by their city or state governments.

  • The recall gave voters the power to remove elected officials from office before their term ended.


Reforming government3

Reforming Government

  • A direct primary was an election in which citizens themselves vote to select the nominees for upcoming elections.

    • Traditionally, political party leaders had chosen the candidates for state and local offices.

    • By 1916, almost all states had direct primaries.


Reforming government4

Reforming Government

  • The Seventeenth Amendment was passed in 1913.

    • Made the Populist demand for the direct election of senators by voters, not state legislators, federal law.

    • Progressives wanted this because big businesses and political machines had been influencing the election of senators, which led to government corruption.


African americans demand reform

African Americans Demand Reform

  • In the summer of 1905, W.E.B. Du Bois and 28 other leaders met at Niagara Falls, Canada to demand full political rights for African Americans.

    • They launched what became called the Niagara Movement, which fought for African American voting rights and an end to segregation.


African americans demand reform1

African Americans Demand Reform

  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded in 1909.

    • The goal of the NAACP was to use the courts to challenge unfair laws.


African americans demand reform2

African Americans Demand Reform

  • Although many people worked hard to end discrimination, not much progress was made during the Progressive Movement.

    • Many Progressives were apathetic about the issue of racial equality or prejudiced themselves.


Roosevelt s square deal

Roosevelt's “Square Deal”

  • Theodore Roosevelt became president in 1901 and quickly helped to accomplish Progressive reforms.

    • He called his program the “Square Deal” and its goals were to keep the wealthy and powerful from taking advantage of small businesses and the poor.

    • He aimed to make everything fair, but did not mean that the government should take care of the lazy.


Roosevelt s square deal1

Roosevelt's “Square Deal”

  • “I shall see to it that every man has a square deal, no less and no more.”

  • “While I say I believe in a square deal, I do not mean to give every man the best hand. If good cards do not come to any man, or if they do come, and he has not got the power to play them, that is his affair. All I mean is that there shall be no crookedness in the dealing.”


Roosevelt regulates big business

Roosevelt Regulates Big Business

  • A trust is formed when different companies in an industry join together to reduce competition, similar to a monopoly.

    • The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 made it illegal for firms to join together and secretly agree to raise prices on customers.

    • It had been rarely enforced by the government.


What is a trust

What is a trust?

A. When two people do not lie to each other.

B. An agreement between firms to increase competition with each other.

C. An agreement between two or more businesses to join together to form a larger business and reduce competition.


Roosevelt regulates big business1

Roosevelt Regulates Big Business

  • Roosevelt believed that trusts were bad.

    • Because they reduced competition, raised prices, and took advantage of people, he enforced the Sherman Antitrust Act used government power to break up many trusts, and became nicknamed the “trustbuster.”

    • Filed 44 lawsuits against trusts.


Roosevelt regulates big business2

Roosevelt Regulates Big Business

  • Roosevelt also used government authority to regulate the railroads, who were using unfair business practices to take advantage of people.

    • He gave the government the authority to set maximum shipping rates, which made the Populists happy.


Consumer protection

Consumer Protection

  • Roosevelt also made reforms to protect consumers.

    • After reading The Jungle Roosevelt encouraged Congress to pass the Meat Inspection Act.

    • The Pure Food and Drug Act established the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ensure people are not hurt by dangerous substances or dishonest labels.


Environmental reforms

Environmental Reforms

  • Roosevelt also tried to protect the environment.

    • Created new national parks, added millions of acres to national forests, and established wildlife reservations.


Roosevelt s legacy

Roosevelt's Legacy

  • He made the federal government bigger and stronger, ended the era of laissez-faire, and increased government regulation of big business.


Progressive reforms under wilson

Progressive Reforms Under Wilson

  • President Woodrow Wilson was elected in 1912 and is also known as an extremely progressive president.


Progressive reforms under wilson1

Progressive Reforms Under Wilson

  • He helped create thesixteenth amendmentwhich was passed in 1913 andcreated a graduated (progressive) income tax to fund the federal government.

    • The rich pay more and the poor pay less.


Progressive reforms under wilson2

Progressive Reforms Under Wilson

  • Wilson also reformed the banking system.

    • At the time interest rates fluctuated wildly and a few wealthy bankers controlled almost all the money.

  • He encouraged Congress to pass the Federal Reserve Act in 1913 which established the Federal Reserve System.


Progressive reforms under wilson3

Progressive Reforms Under Wilson

  • Regulates interest rates so that big banks can’t take advantage of people.

  • Controls the money supply (amount of money in the economy) to prevent inflation (a decrease in the value of money).

  • Keeps the economy from crashing.


Progressive reforms under wilson4

Progressive Reforms Under Wilson

  • In 1914 he persuaded Congress to create the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).

    • Monitored, regulated, and investigated big businesses to make sure they were not engaging in unfair business practices which decreased competition.

    • Also prevented false advertising and dishonest labeling.


Progressive reforms under wilson5

Progressive Reforms Under Wilson

  • Wilson also continued Roosevelt’s legacy of trustbusting by encouraging Congress to pass the Clayton Antitrust Act in 1914.

    • Strengthened the power of the government to regulate trusts and big business.


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