Hardware for Ubiquitous Computing

Hardware for Ubiquitous Computing PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 86 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

FAST-NU Karachi Campus. Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing. 2. Preview . The starting pointCommercial productsCompaq's Itsy pocket computerIBM's Linux watchWearable and Context-aware computersEvolution of Army Wearable ComputersThe Present State and the FutureConclusion. FAST-NU Kara

Download Presentation

Hardware for Ubiquitous Computing

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


1. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 1 Hardware for Ubiquitous Computing Overview of the current state of hardware for ubiquitous computing that has evolved over the last 15 to 20 years

2. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 2 Preview The starting point Commercial products Compaq’s Itsy pocket computer IBM’s Linux watch Wearable and Context-aware computers Evolution of Army Wearable Computers The Present State and the Future Conclusion

3. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 3 Summary of Papers [1] The InfoPad Multimedia Terminal: A Portable Device for Wireless Information Access Thomas E. Truman, Trevor Pering, Roger Doering, Member, IEEE, and Robert W. Brodersen, Fellow, IEEE IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS, VOL. 47, NO. 10, OCTOBER 1998 [2] Itsy: Stretching the Bounds of Mobile Computing William R.Hamburgen, Deborah A. Wallach, Marc A. Viredaz, Lawrence S.Brakmo, Carl A. Waldspurger, Joel F. Bartlett, Timothy Mann, Keith I. Farkas, Compaq Computer Corporation, Corporate Research IEEE Computer 2001 [3] IBM’s Linux Watch: The Challenge of Miniaturization Chandra et. al., IBM Research, Sreekrishnan et. Al. IBM Software Laboratory, India Kazuhiko Yamazaki, IBM Japan IEEE Computer January 2002

4. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 4 Summary of Papers [4] Application Design for Wearable and Context- Aware Computers Asim Smailagic and Daniel Siewiorek, Institute for Complex Engineered Systems and Human Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University IEEE PERVASIVE Computing 2002 [5] The Evolution of Army Wearable Computers Matthew J. Zieniewicz, Douglas C. Johnson, Douglas C. Wong, and John D. Flatt, Research, Development, and Engineering Center, US Army Communications Electronic Command IEEE PERVASIVE Computing [6] Disappearing Hardware Roy Want and Trevor Pering Intel Research, Santa Clara Gaetano Borriello University of Washington and Intel Research, Seattle Keith I. Farkas Compaq Western Research Laboratory IEEE PERVASIVE Computing 2002

5. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 5 InfoPad Multimedia Terminal [1] An experiment Remote I/O interface with no computation and application execution Consists of Radio modem Display Pen-pointing device Audio/Video input output Microprocessor Subsystem ARM60 processor at 10MHz 512KB RAM and 128KB ROM Power saving through software Peripheral Processing Unit Only the interfacing and communication capabilities are strong

6. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 6 InfoPad Multimedia Terminal [1] Assumptions Backbone network resources are virtually unlimited Quality of 1-2Mbits/sec indoor link can be provided and sustained indefinitely Real time information access Outcome Identified weak areas to be improved in later designs Effectiveness of peripheral processing is explored and conclusions derived Many ideas and implementation standards were tested for effectiveness

7. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 7 InfoPad Multimedia Terminal

8. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 8 InfoPad Multimedia Terminal

9. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 9 InfoPad Internal View

10. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 10 InfoPad Wireless Interface System

11. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 11 Itsy – Prototype Pocket Computer Compaq’s mobile computer Processing power and memory capacity that can run cycle hungry applications Continuous speech recognition and real-time MPEG-1 movie decoding Expandable with daughter cards Goal was to pack maximum performance into a unit that people can comfortably carry all day in a pocket or purse Enable easy customization and extension of the system hardware and software Battery and display are the lower bounds on its size Processor StrongARM SA-1100 Low power 32-bit processor Sleep and idle modes

12. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 12 Itsy – V2 Architecture

13. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 13 Itsy v2 specifications

14. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 14 Front and back view of Itsy motherboard

15. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 15 A Session Manager Running on Itsy2

16. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 16 Itsy – Prototype Pocket Computer Software Linux operating system supported Use of sessions support sharing File system uses Linux Ramdisk driver to provide dynamic partitioning between process address space and memory resident file-systems User interface Speech and gesture are used as input to avoid large conventional interfaces Speech Two speech recognition systems Talksoft/DECtalk and DragonSystems

17. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 17 Itsy – Prototype Pocket Computer Gesture user interface Use motion of the system itself as input Small sensors are embedded to implement tilt-to-scroll or rock-n-scroll user interface Outcome A useful tool to explore the bounds of mobile computing Innovative user interface used for the first time and found to be successful Use of Linux as the operating system proved to be a successful exercise Power management feature is explored To be more effective, system should be able to assess its own power consumption

18. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 18 Linux Watch by IBM [3] Wristwatch Computer Runs Linux Features X11 Graphics Offers Bluetooth wireless connectivity Two versions (on the basis of display) OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) User interface Touch screen with symbols in the four corners that specify different actions – roller wheel used as input A number of personal information management systems have been run on it Connectivity performance have been measured

19. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 19 Linux Watch by IBM OLED LCD

20. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 20 Linux Watch by IBM

21. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 21 Linux Watch by IBM Outcome It is possible to build highly functional computer in a wristwatch Make a wearable computer Current focus Additional software components Power management issues Other ways of using the watch by users Display personal data Bring the watch to a wider audience A large amount of information can be squeezed into a smaller device

22. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 22 Context-aware and Wearable Computers [4] People on the move need computing facility with a wide ranging capabilities Wearable computers provide this as a facility that is always available everywhere Capabilities range from Simple stored-information retrieval; to Synchronous or asynchronous collaboration to context-aware platforms with proactive assistants Context-awareness adds to their capabilities

23. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 23 Context-aware and Wearable Computers Application domains Inspection and Maintenance Manufacturing Navigation to on-the-move collaboration Position sensing Real-time speech recognition and language translation Techniques used User-centered design Rapid prototyping In-field evaluation Principles Merge wearable computers with the user’s workspace Blend seamlessly with the user’s existing environment Provide as little distraction as possible

24. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 24 Family tree of CMU Wearable Computers

25. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 25 Ten years of Wearable Computing at CMU

26. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 26 Context-aware and Wearable Computers Design principles of mobile systems Must balance resource availability with portability and usability User interface model What metaphors can be used for mobile information access Input/output modalities Matching capabilities with application requirements Quick interface evaluation New evaluation techniques are needed that provide faster evaluation

27. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 27 Context-aware and Wearable Computers Several functionalities prove useful for these systems Procedures: text and graphics Master-apprentice help-desk Team maintenance and collaboration Context-aware collaboration with a proactive assistant Example systems show these principles

28. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 28 Wearable Computer Platform Examples

29. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 29 Input/output modalities and information sources for interface models

30. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 30 The Evolution of Army Wearable Computers[5] Wearable computer to assist soldiers in battlefield tasks Two major programs Soldier Integrated Protective Ensemble (SIPE) Land Warrior System The first prototype The Soldier’s Computer – 1990 Assists a soldier in battleground Next generation shifted from proprietary to open system bus design – the SIPE project The system evolved into a complete integrated system

31. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 31 Army Wearable Computers

32. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 32 The Soldier’s Computer The new system aimed to digitize basic battlefield operations to help soldiers to Read maps, navigate, and maintain situation awareness Receive, prepare, and send written field reports Capture and transmit color still images for reconnaissance purpose Access battlefield operations reference material

33. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 33 The Soldier’s Computer Main hardware components A compute processor with memory, a GPS receiver, a data radio A video capture system, a digital compass, a miniature color camera A video controller subsystem, an HMD, a power supply subsystem Wiring harnesses, and packaging

34. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 34 The Soldier’s Computer

35. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 35 The Soldier’s Computer The device was well received by the users Large Software functionality was appreciated Problems Device needs to be more compact and having longer power life Weight needed to be reduced Image transmission and reception was slow

36. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 36 Army Wearable Computers The Land Warrior Program Additional features Could identify a soldier’s location His or her fellow troops The enemy It relied on C4ISR technologies Communications Command and control Computing Intelligence Sensor Reconnaissance The team tried to achieve a lighter, smaller, lower powered, and more rugged system

37. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 37 The Land Warrior Version 0.6

38. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 38 The Land Warrior Capability - Front

39. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 39 The Land Warrior Capability - Back

40. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 40 Timeline of Army Wearable Computers vs Industry and Academic Developments

41. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 41 Army Wearable Computers Land Warrior System continues to evolve from Systems built around a soldier’s equipment to A system integrated with the soldier’s equipment towards A system built within the soldier’s equipment Next Objective Force Warrior System Focuses on electronics embedded in an integrated combat uniform Technologies that show promise Intelligent agents on wireless wearable computers Java based collaborative tools Speech recognition in high noise environment Mobile wireless database retrieval

42. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 42 Disappearing Hardware [6] How far we have succeeded and How far we have to go Four most notable developments directly affecting ubiquitous computing Wireless networking Bluetooth and IrDA standards Lags behind in bandwidth capabilities Processing capability Low power consumption and high performance Integrated DRAM, LCD controller and other I/O capabilities

43. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 43 Disappearing Hardware Storage capacity High storage capacity is no longer a problem Use of techniques like pre-fetching, caching and archiving of data is possible at a larger scale High quality displays A large improvement has taken place Size of displays is still a problem Scope for improvement exists Trends Only 2% PCs were sold in the year 2000 as compared to the sale of 98% embedded processors Processors are beginning to be used ubiquitously

44. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 44 Evolution of displays 1992 2002

45. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 45 Disappearing Hardware Current ubiquitous computing research Personal systems Mobile and wearable systems Infrastructure systems Associated with a particular physical locale Proactive interaction methods include speech, pen, vision and touch processing New display technologies would replace the bulky flat screen display Create flexible display surfaces Projection from a small source

46. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 46 Disappearing Hardware Proactivity demands integration of sensors and actuators with the physical world Three hard problems faced with hardware Size Weight Energy Future Computer hardware in virtually every device Wireless infrastructure and protocols Applications and device mappings Software also needs to be seamless to support disappearing hardware

47. FAST-NU Karachi Campus Mobile and Ubiquitous Computing 47 Conclusion

  • Login