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Avian Influenza What, Where, When Anthony Pescatore Department of Animal Sciences University of Kentucky. Avian Influenza in the US is NOT the same Virus as “Bird” Flu in Asia (H5N1). Avian Influenza Nomenclature. Birds: Influenza A type virus

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Avian Influenza

What, Where, When

Anthony Pescatore

Department of Animal Sciences

University of Kentucky


Avian Influenza in the US

is NOT the same Virus as

“Bird” Flu in Asia (H5N1)

avian influenza nomenclature
Avian InfluenzaNomenclature

Birds: Influenza A type virus

Influenza A is divided into Subtypes based on their surface proteins:

Hemagglutinin (HA): 16 subtypes

Neuraminidase (NA): 9 subtypes

H5N1-Hemagglutinin subtype 5

Neuraminidase subtype 1


Influenzavirus A

Poultry FAD 2005

characteristics of ai in birds
Characteristics of AI in Birds
  • Shore and Water Fowl act as Hosts
  • Ability to get disease vary for species
  • Birds shed virus in saliva, nasal discharge and feces
  • Spread by contact with discharge or feces
  • Fecal-to-oral transmission most likely

Transmission & Host Adaptation of Influenza A Viruses

  • Most Common: Intraspecies, e.g. human-to- human, pig-to-pig, chicken- to-chicken, etc.
  • Occasional: Interspecies & intraclass, e.g. pig-to- human, wild-mallard-to-domestic turkey, etc.
  • Recently, but rarely: Interspecies & interclass, e.g. bird-to-human, bird-to-pig, etc.
  • Conclusion: Influenza viruses express host adaptation to various levels

Poultry FAD 2005


Countries affected by H5N1 in Asia

As of October 29, 2005

  • China
  • Cambodia
  • Russia
  • Japan
  • Korea
  • Laos
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malaysia
  • Kazakhstan
  • Indonesia
what is different in asia
What is Different in Asia
  • Higher degree of bird and human contact
  • Village fowl
  • City situation overcrowded: birds and people live together
  • Live bird markets
  • Fighting Cocks major activity
  • More small flocks and manual labor


  • 4 Billion appropriated from defense budget
  • Vaccine studies in Asia
  • Naive population
  • 117 cases confirmed human infections in Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Indonesia with a 51% mortality rate
united states situation
United States Situation
  • The US is concerned with keeping the “Bird Flu” out through embargoes
  • The US problem is a different strain and concern is bird related not a human concern
  • Low path (LPAI) vs. High path (HPAI) refers to how to dangerous the virus is to poultry
  • LPAI is present in NY/NJ live markets
  • Important of exports (34 countries have partial or full ban)
outbreaks in north america among poultry
Outbreaks in North America among Poultry


  • Texas: H5N2: HPAI First in 20 years

7,000 birds and Houston Live Market


  • Maryland: H7N2: LPAI: related to Delaware break
  • Pennsylvania: H2N2: LPAI: Infected layer flock
  • Delaware and NJ: H7N2: LPAI: Two farms in Delaware and 4 live markets in NJ.
  • British Columbia: H7N3: HPAI: Depopulated all poultry in the Fraser Valley. Repopulated
what is being done in us
What is being done in US
  • Voluntary (mandatory) surveillance program

Must test for exports

  • Mandatory surveillance of live bird markets in NY, NJ and east coast
  • Increase awareness among poultry health officials and state officials
  • USDA increase information to small flocks producers
  • Import ban on poultry from Asia

What is being done in Kentucky?

  • Commercial Surveillance Program
  • Poultry Health Advisory Board
  • Emergency Disease Plan
  • Catastrophic Loss Training
  • Creation of an indemnity fund for small flocks ($102,000) by commercial industry

What can you and small producers do?

  • Biosecurity
  • Personal Hygiene
  • Wash your hands, Wash your hands, Wash your hands
  • Separate clothes and boots for the poultry
  • Protective gear if creating an aerosol
  • Be aware of where you have been
  • Get sick birds to a diagnostic lab
  • If you have a poultry event schedule in your county let the State Veterinarian Office know.
  • The situation in Asia will get worse before it is under control
  • The threat to North America is by the transfer of the disease by a human carrier
  • The US will increase programs to control Low Path Avian Influenza
  • The media will get burnout on the story

Trouble Shooting the Small Flock

Tony Pescatore

Extension Professor

Department of Animal Sciences

Agent Training



Quantity, Age, and Types of Birds on Farm

  • Important when dealing with mix species, mixed ages,
  • What birds have the problem
  • 2. What is the source of the birds?
  • Multiple sources, new birds on farm, age of birds when purchased, NPIP hatchery

3. What feed is being fed to the birds?

  • List all feeds and the amount or proportion.
  • Poultry need a complete feed that contains protein, energy, vitamins and minerals.
  • Laying hens need diets that are 14-16%
  • Broiler starter diets contain 20-22%
  • Broiler grower diets contain 18-20%
  • Turkeys, game birds and other fowl need higher protein.
  • Cracked corn and scratch grains do not supply needed nutrition.
  • 1/4 pound per bird per day
  • 10 to 12 pounds of feed / broiler

4. How is water supplied ?

  • What is the source of water?
  • Clean fresh water
  • Pond vs. City water
  • Clean mold free drinkers
  • Winter: Frozen water lines and drinkers
  • Summer: Heat build up / flush lines
  • Opaque water lines and reservoirs
  • 5 gallons of water / 100 laying hens or market ready broilers
  • Double water consumption in warm weather

How are the birds housed and what is the amount of room per bird?

  • No matter the housing system you can over crowd the birds.
  • Feeder space and water space can cause crowding. (all birds can eat at one time)
  • 2 inches – 4 inches per bird
  • Cannibalism, reduced feed consumption, feather picking, stress
  • Chickens need at least 2.5 sq ft per bird on the floor and 80 sq inches of cage space
  • Turkeys need 3 to 4 times the space of chickens
  • Game birds need extra room to prevent cannibalism

6. What symptoms do the birds exhibit?

  • Limber neck
  • Visible External Parasites
  • Poor Growth
  • Skin Lesions
  • Curled Toes
  • Swollen Head
  • Poor Shell Quality
  • Swollen Hocks
  • Crusted or swollen scales
  • Other
  • Listless
  • Paralysis
  • Loose/watery Droppings
  • Blood in Droppings
  • Coughing/Nasal Rattle
  • Nasal Discharge
  • Swollen Eyes
  • Cannibalism, pecking/feather picking
  • Drop in Egg Production

7. Have any birds died (How many and when)?

  • Which birds: age, species, what subpopulation
  • 8. Have birds been sent to a diagnostic lab? Which lab?
  • Who is the submitting veterinarian?
  • There is a charge at the labs. Cap of $55 for five birds
  • The birds need to be submitted by a veterinarian
  • 9. What vaccination program is being used on the farm?
  • List type and date of each vaccination.
  • Vaccinate at the hatchery for Marek’s Disease
  • No other vaccine unless a history of disease on premises
  • 10. Is there a history of this type of disease or symptom?

11. What Lighting Program are the birds on?

  • Natural Light, Natural Light + Supplemental Light, Artificial Light
  • How much light (Hours / Day) do the birds receive?
  • To lay year round need supplemental light for a day length of 14-16 hours of light
  • Birds on natural light will go out of production after the first of the year because of short day length and will return to production in spring with increasing day length
  • Constant light of 24 hours will cause the birds to go out of production
  • A 60 watt bulb eight feet above the birds gives enough light in a 10 x 10 area

12. Which of the following condition exists on the farm?

  • Clean and Neat
  • Build up of wet litter or bedding in pens
  • Good ground cover in outside pens or runs
  • Muddy runs or outside pens with poor drainage
  • Feed is properly stored and provided fresh daily
  • Feed is stored in extreme conditions cold or hot
  • Moldy or cake feed in feeders
  • Table scrapes are laying in pens or runs

12. Which of the following condition exists on the farm?

  • Waterer or drinkers are clean regularly
  • Waterer or drinkers are dirty and not clean
  • Rodents or pest present
  • Wild birds have excess to buildings or feeders
  • Poultry on farm are isolated from other animals

12. Which of the following condition exists on the farm?

  • No new birds are brought on to the farm except as chicks
  • New birds have been added to the flock within the last two months
  • The owner has attended a poultry show or swap meet or exhibited birds
  • Birds that have been to shows or swap meets are kept isolated for 30 days when returned to the farm
  • Birds at shows and swap meets are added immediately to the flock
  • Different species of birds are kept separate from each other (chicken and turkeys are not mixed)
  • All species of birds are raised together with no separation
  • Contact with commercial poultry