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In the Name of Allah the Most Beneficent and the Most Merciful. Organizational Communication Zia Ur Rehman National Textile University. THE AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION. Chapter 04. What motivate you?. What Is Motivation?. Willingness of action esp. in behavior; The

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In the Name ofAllahthe MostBeneficentandthe Most Merciful

Organizational Communication

Zia Ur Rehman

National Textile University

What is motivation
What Is Motivation?

Willingness of action esp. in behavior; The

action of motivating; Something which

motivates; An incentive or reason for doing


Objectives of the lecture
Objectives Of The Lecture

To comprehend:

  • How to analyze the audience?

  • Who are they?

  • What they know?

  • How they feel?

  • What can motivate the audience?

  • Punish/reward/ appeal to their growth needs

  • Character traits of audience/ need for balance

Communicator listener reader
Communicator: Listener/Reader







  • Centre your audience

  • You approach

  • Do not focus yourself

  • Aim message towards audience’s needs & desires

  • Analyzing & motivate audience, most important strategy

Analyze your audience
Analyze your audience?

  • Analyze who they are? & what they already know


  • Audience, who will receive the message, letter or speaking at meeting

  • Primary audience, visualize them, how to persuade

  • Secondary/hidden audience, not direct but have affect

Secondary audience
Secondary Audience

  • Someone affected by or involved with message

  • E.g., receiver of memos, affected by decision at meeting, approve or signing authority

  • Need to speak /write for primary as well as secondary audience

Key audience
Key Audience

  • If primary/secondary audience in conflict

  • Think about key decision maker

  • For success, must keep in mind these people

  • Consider leader’s preferred style

Primary secondary key audience
Primary/secondary/key audience

  • Analyze, based on your personal knowledge

  • Know their background, ages, education level, trainings, interests and attitudes

  • Young vs. old experienced individuals

  • Know more, better to persuade

Unknown audience
Unknown Audience

  • In business mostly communicate with unknown

  • Analyze their group traits instead individuals one

  • Include their group characteristics, norms, traditions, standards, rules & values

  • E.g., group of research people vs. salespersons

What they know how they feel
What They Know & How They Feel

  • Know audience’s knowledge of topic to avoid:

  • Over the head situation

  • Phrases/words/technical expertise which unfamiliar

  • E.g., medical terms, understood by medical experts

  • Provide reasonable amount of information

How audience feel
How audience feel?

  • Need to understand how audience feel

  • Their tendency, mood, opinions and attitudes

  • Are they in favor of, against, or indifferent to your message?

  • Benefit or threaten them?

  • Guess probable reaction to structure message

Motivate your audience
Motivate Your Audience

  • Five techniques for motivating audience:

  • Punish or reward

  • Appeal to their growth needs

  • Use people’s need for balance

  • Perform cost/benefit analysis

  • Be sensitive to character traits

Punish or reward
Punish Or Reward

  • Punishment: One way of motivating people

  • Limited method

  • Walter found six reasons for its limitations:

  • E.g., phone use, fire but can’t watch him the whole time

  • Threat may stop one treat but not give desired response

Punish or reward1
Punish Or Reward

  • Stop inappropriate action even when appropriate

  • Stop talking friendly way with friends/clients

  • Produce tension, less pleasant /productive

  • Tend to make people dislike you

  • May produce counter aggression

Rewards or positive reinforcement
Rewards Or Positive Reinforcement

  • Most effective way to shape behavior

  • Most important to audience

  • Some group acceptance, money, achievement

Rewards or positive reinforcement1
Rewards Or Positive Reinforcement

  • Must be appropriate & sincere

  • Thanks for a project/ successful deal/ lunch

  • Effective rewards must be immediate

  • Sometimes not trophies, pens but verbal way

Use people s need for balance
Use People’s Need For Balance

  • Growth needs to couple with balance theory

  • People prefer state of psychological balance

  • Ideas conflict what they believe results anxiety

  • Feel anxiety, attempt restore sense of balance

Use people s need for balance1
Use People’s Need For Balance

  • people resist to accept new information, difficult to persuade

  • For good communicator, no resistance but acceptance of new ideas

  • They established new equilibrium

How to use people s need for balance
How to use people’s need for balance?

  • Focus anxiety/ problem & offer solution

  • That will feel them balance

  • Boss no meeting, anxiety among peers

  • Give solution in doing meetings

How to use people s need for balance1
How to use people’s need for balance?

  • If conflicts exit in their beliefs----imbalance

  • Tie imbalance information to their needs

  • More active participation, more understanding

  • Concentrate on key features

Perform cost benefit analysis
Perform Cost/Benefit Analysis

  • Economic ideas to psychology

  • Seller/buyer cost/benefit behavior

  • Benefit will motivate buyer

  • Think about merits/demerits of item

Be sensitive to character traits
Be Sensitive To Character Traits

  • Making generalizations about others is dangerous

  • Infer through traits behavior, we perceive

  • Categories, based on incorrect inference

  • Equate character with traits, not people

  • Characters are complex than a trait even

4c s model
4c’s Model

through procedures tends to to get results work alone

comptroller commander

maintains changes

status quo status quo

collaborator crusader

through through

affiliation dreams

work with group

Audience 1
Audience 1

  • Bureaucratic , work alone & carefully

  • Consistence & like facts and statistics

  • Not mover and shaker

  • Slow decision and resist to change

  • To motivate , use traditional ,process & system

  • Use detail information & tone

Audience 2
Audience 2

  • Enthusiastic, idealistic, creative, like change

  • Sometimes prejudice coz enthusiastic

  • Motivate, informative tone

  • Motivate by ideas

Audience 3
Audience 3

  • People’s person, work as part of team

  • Avoid conflict & risk, don’t like change, avoid details

  • Don’t make decision

  • Motive, adopt trusting tone

Audience 4
Audience 4

  • Likes action & results not ideals

  • Decisive & efficient

  • Use result –oriented tone

  • Give your own recommendations & conclusion

  • What’s in it for him? Wants power

4c s examples
4c’s Examples

  • Commander, army officers, editors

  • Crusader, art/history teacher

  • Collaborator, cricket coach

  • Comptroller, HR department, secretary


What sorts of question can be constructed

after studying this chapter?

Probable questions
Probable Questions

  • What is audience and how can we motivate our audience?

  • Explain Maslow's and Herzberg’s two sets of needs to motivate people.

  • Draw and elaborate 4C’s model of business personality traits.