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In the Name of Allah the Most Beneficent and the Most Merciful. Organizational Communication Zia Ur Rehman National Textile University. THE AUDIENCE: MOTIVATION. Chapter 04. What motivate you?. What Is Motivation?. Willingness of action esp. in behavior; The

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In the name of allah the most beneficent and the most merciful

In the Name ofAllahthe MostBeneficentandthe Most Merciful

In the name of allah the most beneficent and the most merciful

Organizational Communication

Zia Ur Rehman

National Textile University

The audience motivation


Chapter 04

In the name of allah the most beneficent and the most merciful

What motivate you?

What is motivation

What Is Motivation?

Willingness of action esp. in behavior; The

action of motivating; Something which

motivates; An incentive or reason for doing


Objectives of the lecture

Objectives Of The Lecture

To comprehend:

  • How to analyze the audience?

  • Who are they?

  • What they know?

  • How they feel?

  • What can motivate the audience?

  • Punish/reward/ appeal to their growth needs

  • Character traits of audience/ need for balance

Communicator listener reader

Communicator: Listener/Reader








  • Centre your audience

  • You approach

  • Do not focus yourself

  • Aim message towards audience’s needs & desires

  • Analyzing & motivate audience, most important strategy

Analyze your audience

Analyze your audience?

  • Analyze who they are? & what they already know


  • Audience, who will receive the message, letter or speaking at meeting

  • Primary audience, visualize them, how to persuade

  • Secondary/hidden audience, not direct but have affect

Secondary audience

Secondary Audience

  • Someone affected by or involved with message

  • E.g., receiver of memos, affected by decision at meeting, approve or signing authority

  • Need to speak /write for primary as well as secondary audience

Key audience

Key Audience

  • If primary/secondary audience in conflict

  • Think about key decision maker

  • For success, must keep in mind these people

  • Consider leader’s preferred style

Primary secondary key audience

Primary/secondary/key audience

  • Analyze, based on your personal knowledge

  • Know their background, ages, education level, trainings, interests and attitudes

  • Young vs. old experienced individuals

  • Know more, better to persuade

Unknown audience

Unknown Audience

  • In business mostly communicate with unknown

  • Analyze their group traits instead individuals one

  • Include their group characteristics, norms, traditions, standards, rules & values

  • E.g., group of research people vs. salespersons

What they know how they feel

What They Know & How They Feel

  • Know audience’s knowledge of topic to avoid:

  • Over the head situation

  • Phrases/words/technical expertise which unfamiliar

  • E.g., medical terms, understood by medical experts

  • Provide reasonable amount of information

How audience feel

How audience feel?

  • Need to understand how audience feel

  • Their tendency, mood, opinions and attitudes

  • Are they in favor of, against, or indifferent to your message?

  • Benefit or threaten them?

  • Guess probable reaction to structure message

Motivate your audience

Motivate Your Audience

  • Five techniques for motivating audience:

  • Punish or reward

  • Appeal to their growth needs

  • Use people’s need for balance

  • Perform cost/benefit analysis

  • Be sensitive to character traits

Punish or reward

Punish Or Reward

  • Punishment: One way of motivating people

  • Limited method

  • Walter found six reasons for its limitations:

  • E.g., phone use, fire but can’t watch him the whole time

  • Threat may stop one treat but not give desired response

Punish or reward1

Punish Or Reward

  • Stop inappropriate action even when appropriate

  • Stop talking friendly way with friends/clients

  • Produce tension, less pleasant /productive

  • Tend to make people dislike you

  • May produce counter aggression

Rewards or positive reinforcement

Rewards Or Positive Reinforcement

  • Most effective way to shape behavior

  • Most important to audience

  • Some group acceptance, money, achievement

Rewards or positive reinforcement1

Rewards Or Positive Reinforcement

  • Must be appropriate & sincere

  • Thanks for a project/ successful deal/ lunch

  • Effective rewards must be immediate

  • Sometimes not trophies, pens but verbal way

Appeal to their growth needs

Appeal To Their Growth Needs

Use people s need for balance

Use People’s Need For Balance

  • Growth needs to couple with balance theory

  • People prefer state of psychological balance

  • Ideas conflict what they believe results anxiety

  • Feel anxiety, attempt restore sense of balance

Use people s need for balance1

Use People’s Need For Balance

  • people resist to accept new information, difficult to persuade

  • For good communicator, no resistance but acceptance of new ideas

  • They established new equilibrium

How to use people s need for balance

How to use people’s need for balance?

  • Focus anxiety/ problem & offer solution

  • That will feel them balance

  • Boss no meeting, anxiety among peers

  • Give solution in doing meetings

How to use people s need for balance1

How to use people’s need for balance?

  • If conflicts exit in their beliefs----imbalance

  • Tie imbalance information to their needs

  • More active participation, more understanding

  • Concentrate on key features

Perform cost benefit analysis

Perform Cost/Benefit Analysis

  • Economic ideas to psychology

  • Seller/buyer cost/benefit behavior

  • Benefit will motivate buyer

  • Think about merits/demerits of item

Be sensitive to character traits

Be Sensitive To Character Traits

  • Making generalizations about others is dangerous

  • Infer through traits behavior, we perceive

  • Categories, based on incorrect inference

  • Equate character with traits, not people

  • Characters are complex than a trait even

4c s model

4c’s Model

through procedures tends to to get resultswork alone



status quostatus quo


through through


work with group

Audience 1

Audience 1

  • Bureaucratic , work alone & carefully

  • Consistence & like facts and statistics

  • Not mover and shaker

  • Slow decision and resist to change

  • To motivate , use traditional ,process & system

  • Use detail information & tone

Audience 2

Audience 2

  • Enthusiastic, idealistic, creative, like change

  • Sometimes prejudice coz enthusiastic

  • Motivate, informative tone

  • Motivate by ideas

Audience 3

Audience 3

  • People’s person, work as part of team

  • Avoid conflict & risk, don’t like change, avoid details

  • Don’t make decision

  • Motive, adopt trusting tone

Audience 4

Audience 4

  • Likes action & results not ideals

  • Decisive & efficient

  • Use result –oriented tone

  • Give your own recommendations & conclusion

  • What’s in it for him? Wants power

4c s examples

4c’s Examples

  • Commander, army officers, editors

  • Crusader, art/history teacher

  • Collaborator, cricket coach

  • Comptroller, HR department, secretary



What sorts of question can be constructed

after studying this chapter?

Probable questions

Probable Questions

  • What is audience and how can we motivate our audience?

  • Explain Maslow's and Herzberg’s two sets of needs to motivate people.

  • Draw and elaborate 4C’s model of business personality traits.

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