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The South and Slavery. King Cotton Reigns. The Cotton Kingdom. Post Revolutionary recession results in decline in slavery Ideals of the Revolution conflict with slavery. Some owners free their slaves. Slavery Expands and Cotton Become King. Cotton Gin Trade

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The south and slavery

The South and Slavery

King Cotton Reigns


The cotton kingdom
The Cotton Kingdom

  • Post Revolutionary recession results in decline in slavery

  • Ideals of the Revolution conflict with slavery.

  • Some owners free their slaves.


Slavery expands and cotton become king
Slavery Expands and Cotton Become King

  • Cotton Gin

  • Trade

    • Cotton exported to England; $ from sale of cotton used to buy northern goods

    • Britain heavily dependent on cotton to feed its textile factories (80% came from U.S.)

    • Cotton accounted for 50% of all American exports after 1840.

    • South produced 75% of world’s cotton.


Slave rebellions
Slave Rebellions

  • Stono Rebellion, 1739

    • South Carolina slaves fled toward Florida killing whites along way

  • Gabriel Prosser, 1800

    • Rebellion did not materialize and Prosser and 26 others were hanged.

  • Denmark Vesey 1822.

    • A slave informer advised his master of the plot

    • Vesey and 30 others publicly hanged


Slave rebellions1
Slave Rebellions

  • Nat Turner’s revolt -- 1831

    • Sixty Virginians slaughtered, mostly children and women

      • Wave of killing slowed down revolt’s aim of capturing armory

      • Largest slave revolt ever in the South

    • Over 100 slaves were killed in response; Turner was hanged.

    • Southern states made it increasingly difficult for masters to free their slaves


Slave rebellion cont
Slave Rebellion Cont.

  • The most common form of resistance on the part of black Americans slaves prior to the Civil War

    • passive resistance, including breaking tools and slightly slowing the pace of work


The planter aristocracy
The Planter "Aristocracy"

  • South an oligarchy

    • Ruled by wealthy plantation owners

    • 1850, only 1,733 families owned more than 100 slaves; yet dominated southern politics


Peculiar institution
Peculiar Institution

  • Economic structure of South was monopolistic, dominated by wealthy plantation owners

  • Plantation system

    • Risky : Slaves might die of disease, injure themselves, or run away.

    • System required heavy investment of capital

  • One-crop economy (cotton)

    • Discouraged a diversification of agriculture and esp. manufacturing


Peculiar institution1
Peculiar Institution

  • Southerners resentful the North made huge profits at their expense

  • Resented being so dependent on northern manufactures & markets

  • Repelled large-scale European immigration

    • Only 4.4% of foreign-born part of South’s pop. in 1860; 18.7% in North.


Plantation slavery
Plantation Slavery

  • Nearly 4 million slaves by 1860; quadrupled in number since 1800

    • Legal imports of slaves ended in 1808

      • Countless slaves smuggled in despite death penalty for slavers

  • Burdens of slavery

    • Slaves deprived of dignity and sense of responsibility that free people have

    • suffered cruel physical and psychological treatment

    • Denied an education since

      • seen as dangerous to give slaves ideas of freedom


Plantation slavery cont
Plantation Slavery Cont

  • The increase in the South's slave labor force between 1810 and 1860

    • Natural population increase of American-born slave

    • White slave owners often fathered sizable mulatto population.

      • Most remained slaves

    • Slaves seen as valuable assets and primary source of wealth

      • Slave auctions one of most revolting aspects of slavery

      • Punishment often brutal to send a message to other slaves not to defy master’s authority


The white majority
The White Majority

  • By 1860, only 1/4 of white southerners owned slaves or belonged to slave-owning families

    • Small slave owners made up a majority of masters.

    • 75% of white southerners owned no slaves at all.

    • Mostly subsistence farmers; didn’t participate in market economy


The white majority1
The White Majority

  • Fiercely defended the slave system as it proved white superiority

  • Poor whites took comfort that they were "equal" to wealthy neighbors

  • Poor Southern whites someday hoped to own slaves and realize the "American dream."



Slave control growing opposition
Slave control & growing opposition

  • A Slave Catechism

  • Religion was a means of control

  • Rising opposition to slavery

  • Natural rights theory of the revolution


Slave trade banned by the constitution in 1807
Slave trade banned by the Constitution in 1807

  • Britain bans the slave trade - William Wilberforce BRITISH PM

  • The ideas of the 2nd Great Awakening


The domestic slave trade
The Domestic Slave Trade

  • Center Washington D.C.

  • Advertisements

  • Breeding practices

  • Family splitting- Josiah Henson

  • “Being sold down river”


Slave revolts
Slave Revolts

  • Constant fear in the south.

  • New York fire & riot 1741

  • The Gabriel Conspiracy

  • Denmark Vesey 1822

  • The Nat Turner Revolt 1831


The south strikes back
The South strikes back!

  • New Slave codes and defense of slavery

  • Slaves denied any status as human beings

  • Use of “slave patrols”

  • Congressional “gag resolution”


The positive good theory of slavery
The Positive Good theory of slavery

  • Edward Brown

  • John Hammond -mudsill theory

  • George Fitzhugh “Cannibals All” claimed Africans have produced no culture.

  • Dr. John Van Evrie did a brain size study.


The abolition movement
THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT

  • THE EARLIEST ABOLITION SOCIETIES FORMED IN 1815

  • KEY LEADER BENJAMIN LUNDY

  • CALLED FOR GRADUAL EMANCIPATION

  • AND COLONIZATION BACK TO AFRICA

  • RELIED ON PERSUASION & CONCILIATION


Lundy publishes the genius of universal emancipation 1821
LUNDY PUBLISHES THE GENIUS OF UNIVERSAL EMANCIPATION 1821

  • WALKED FROM TOWN TO TOWN PREACHING GRADUAL EMANCIPATION.

  • WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING - BOSTON CLERGYMAN DELIVERED THE SAME MESSAGE

  • “SLAVERY IS YOUR CALAMITY NOT YOUR CRIME”


By 1830 it was clear persuasion would not work
BY 1830 IT WAS CLEAR PERSUASION WOULD NOT WORK

  • VOLUNTARY EMANCIPATION WAS RARE.

  • THE MOVEMENT BECOMES MORE MILITANT.

  • THE AMERICAN ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY FOUNDED 1833

  • GOAL TO “ABOLITIONIZE THE COUNTRY”


William lloyd garrison launches the liberator in 1831
WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON LAUNCHES THE LIBERATORIN 1831

  • SLAVERY SHOULD END NOW!

  • “I WILL NOT EQUIVOCATE, EXCUSE OR RETREAT A SINGLE INCH…I WILL BE HEARD!”

  • SLAVERY IS A CRIME AND A SIN. YOU CAN NOT COMPROMISE WITH SIN.


Wendell phillips the golden trumpet of abolition
WENDELL PHILLIPS “THE GOLDEN TRUMPET OF ABOLITION.”

  • OTHERS JOIN THE CAUSE

  • THEODORE PARKER A UNITARIAN MINISTER.

  • WRITER JOHN GREENLIEF WHITTIER

  • ALL ARE VIEWED AS DANGEROUS RADICALS AND TROUBLE MAKERS IN BOTH THE NORTH & SOUTH.


Elijah p lovejoy
ELIJAH P. LOVEJOY

  • PUBLISHER OF THE OBSERVER.

  • LOVEJOY IS MURDERED IN ALTON, ILLINOIS IN 1837

  • FIRST WHITEMAN TO BE KILLED IN THE CAUSE OF ABOLITION.

  • GARRISON NEARLY LYNCHED


Abolitionists tended to oversimplify
ABOLITIONISTS TENDED TO OVERSIMPLIFY

  • DEPICTED ALL SLAVE OWNERS AS WICKED BRUTES

  • NO COMPROMISE

  • GARRISON: “THE CONSTITUTION IS A COVENANT WITH DEATH AND THE DEVIL.”

  • ATTACK MADE SLAVE OWNERS DEFENSIVE.


Abolition movement split in 1840
ABOLITION MOVEMENT SPLIT IN 1840

  • ANTI-GARRISON BRANCH FORMS THE LIBERTY PARTY.

  • TAKE A “FREE SOIL” POSITION

  • WANTS TO USE POLITICAL MEANS TO END SLAVERY.

  • LIBERTY PARTY OFFERS JAMES G. BIRNEY AS PRESIDENT IN 1840 & 1844.


The garrison branch offers no compromise
THE GARRISON BRANCH OFFERS NO COMPROMISE.

  • POSITION : YOU CANNOT WORK WITHIN THE SYSTEM.

  • HELPS TO ORGANIZE THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD.

  • WHICH ASSISTS SLAVES TO RUNAWAY.

  • THE OHIO RIVER IS THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN FREE & SLAVE TERRITORY


The underground railroad
THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD

  • HELPED ABOUT 2000 SLAVES TO FREEDOM EVERY YEAR.

  • SOUTH DEMANDS ENFORCEMENT OF THE FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT.

  • IN 1850- CONGRESS PASSES A STRONGER FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT.


Southern reaction to abolition movement
SOUTHERN REACTION TO ABOLITION MOVEMENT

  • LABELS THEM CRIMINALS

  • CONGRESS PASSES THE “GAG RULE” NO DEBATE OF SLAVERY

  • BANS DISTRIBUTION OF ABOLITIONIST PAPERS.

  • BLAIMS GARRISON FOR NAT TURNER REBELLION.


The south s error was to over react to the abolition movement
THE SOUTH’S ERROR WAS TO OVER-REACT TO THE ABOLITION MOVEMENT

  • IT WAS ALWAYS A MINORITY IN THE NORTH.

  • SOUTHERNS CAME TO VIEW ALL NORTHERNERS AS ABOLITIONIST.


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