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Management. Chapter 4: Job Analysis and Training and Development. Job Analysis. Detailed study of a job to determine the nature of the work, the quantity and quality of output, working conditions, and personal qualities required for success

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Chapter 4: Job Analysis and Training and Development

job analysis
Job Analysis
  • Detailed study of a job to determine the nature of the work, the quantity and quality of output, working conditions, and personal qualities required for success
    • Nature of the job identifies tasks, conditions, and technology required to do the job
    • Basis of the job description and specifications for hiring and evaluation
  • Job description must be in writing and describe the job duties and activities as specifically as possible
job specifications
Job Specifications
  • Outlines the education, experience, training, and personal attributes required for success on the job
  • Used to select employees, measure training needs and promotional opportunities, and for setting wage scales
    • Tendency to exaggerate basic specifications
    • Job specifications susceptible to review for EEOC and affirmative action
    • The more accurate the job specification, the more successful the organization will be in hiring
task analysis
Task Analysis
  • Process of breaking work down into its consistent elements, integral part of job analysis process
  • Conducted under direction of trained person
    • Methods include interviewing employees and employers, using a questionnaire, observing performance, and using computer measures
  • Usually involves two or more of the methods; the more sources of data, the more accurate the end product
job evaluation
Job Evaluation
  • Another way of setting fair compensation rates
  • Carefully designed program for appraising the value of jobs and obtaining an equitable pay relationship between them
  • Effectiveness measures are difficult, include the following factors
    • Know-how involved in a job
    • Physical and mental effort
    • Working conditions
  • The process of providing the opportunity for individuals to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes required in their present job
  • Should be systematic, continuous, and ongoing
  • When training is important to an organization, the entire organization benefits
    • Increased performance on the job
    • Additional training is offered to cope with change
assessing training needs and objectives
Assessing Training Needs and Objectives
  • First step in designing a training program
  • Needs analysis should include a human resources inventory and development plan as well as an accurate, quantifiable assessment of the present and projected needs for human resources
  • Study present and future job needs
  • Conduct an employee needs analysis including a review of current job performance and a comparison of current job skills with those required to perform jobs
designing a training program
Designing a Training Program

Program design will be based on responses to the following

  • What types of skills need to be taught and reinforced?
  • Who will provide the training?
  • Where and when will the training sessions occur?
  • Which specific training techniques will be used to help increase skills, knowledge, and abilities?
purposes of training
Purposes of Training
  • Most training focuses on upgrading technical skills for both blue- and white-collar positions
  • Interpersonal skills are important because of the need for employees to interact with others
  • Problem solving and responsive thinking have become necessary skills for success on the job
  • Basic literacy skills are necessary in all jobs
  • New employee orientation allows for success in a new job
  • Professional certification leads to a need for training and preparation
instructional staff
Instructional Staff
  • Some are from within the organization, while others come from outside
    • Depends on the size of the group, training topics, and cost
  • Interactive technology allows for networked meetings, conferences, and seminars
    • New opportunities
training programs
Training Programs
  • On-the-job training is the most common type; includes apprenticeships, internships, and job rotation programs
    • Provide opportunity to learn more about their job in relation to others
  • On-site/off-job training may be voluntary, some opportunities available because of technology
    • Can make for heavy workload
  • Off-the-job site programs may be in the form of formal classroom instruction, seminars, simulations, and conferences
    • Numerous benefits can be gained from this
  • Focuses on improving general knowledge and abilities rather than job-specific skills
  • Development is broader in nature than training
  • Development process is the same as that for training . . . begins with needs analysis and ends with evaluation of program results
  • Purpose of management development is to develop competence for the future
  • Program geared to specific goals and objectives identified by the organization
programs for managerial levels
Programs for Managerial Levels
  • First-line managers need to develop skills in the areas of interpersonal skills, communication, problem-solving, time management, supervision, and leadership
  • Middle managers require training in areas such as assertiveness, dealing with conflict, interpersonal and communication skills, balancing demands, delegation, and empowerment
  • Top-level managers need training in leadership, interpersonal skills, planning and organizing, crisis handling, and stress management
development methods

Understudy assignments

Coaching and mentoring

Job rotation

On-site, off-the-job techniques

Other approaches

Assessment centers

Organizational development exercises

Decision making exercises

Leadership matches

Behavior modification

Development Methods
evaluating for effectiveness
Evaluating for Effectiveness
  • Training must be evaluated systematically, process involves documenting end results
    • Compare behavior before and after training
    • Determine relevance of training for accomplishment of objectives
  • Training evaluation process requires a determination of whether or not a program has fulfilled its objectives, and to what extent
kirkpatrick s method
Kirkpatrick’s Method
  • Reaction to the training program is the first criterion of effectiveness
  • Learning the content is the second level, to what extent
  • Behavior, performance, and attitude changes in the worker are the third level
  • The results (improvement) are the ultimate measurement