Management
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Management. Chapter 4: Job Analysis and Training and Development. Job Analysis. Detailed study of a job to determine the nature of the work, the quantity and quality of output, working conditions, and personal qualities required for success

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Management

Management

Chapter 4: Job Analysis and Training and Development


Job analysis

Job Analysis

  • Detailed study of a job to determine the nature of the work, the quantity and quality of output, working conditions, and personal qualities required for success

    • Nature of the job identifies tasks, conditions, and technology required to do the job

    • Basis of the job description and specifications for hiring and evaluation

  • Job description must be in writing and describe the job duties and activities as specifically as possible


Job specifications

Job Specifications

  • Outlines the education, experience, training, and personal attributes required for success on the job

  • Used to select employees, measure training needs and promotional opportunities, and for setting wage scales

    • Tendency to exaggerate basic specifications

    • Job specifications susceptible to review for EEOC and affirmative action

    • The more accurate the job specification, the more successful the organization will be in hiring


Task analysis

Task Analysis

  • Process of breaking work down into its consistent elements, integral part of job analysis process

  • Conducted under direction of trained person

    • Methods include interviewing employees and employers, using a questionnaire, observing performance, and using computer measures

  • Usually involves two or more of the methods; the more sources of data, the more accurate the end product


Job evaluation

Job Evaluation

  • Another way of setting fair compensation rates

  • Carefully designed program for appraising the value of jobs and obtaining an equitable pay relationship between them

  • Effectiveness measures are difficult, include the following factors

    • Know-how involved in a job

    • Physical and mental effort

    • Working conditions


Training

Training

  • The process of providing the opportunity for individuals to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes required in their present job

  • Should be systematic, continuous, and ongoing

  • When training is important to an organization, the entire organization benefits

    • Increased performance on the job

    • Additional training is offered to cope with change


Assessing training needs and objectives

Assessing Training Needs and Objectives

  • First step in designing a training program

  • Needs analysis should include a human resources inventory and development plan as well as an accurate, quantifiable assessment of the present and projected needs for human resources

  • Study present and future job needs

  • Conduct an employee needs analysis including a review of current job performance and a comparison of current job skills with those required to perform jobs


Designing a training program

Designing a Training Program

Program design will be based on responses to the following

  • What types of skills need to be taught and reinforced?

  • Who will provide the training?

  • Where and when will the training sessions occur?

  • Which specific training techniques will be used to help increase skills, knowledge, and abilities?


Purposes of training

Purposes of Training

  • Most training focuses on upgrading technical skills for both blue- and white-collar positions

  • Interpersonal skills are important because of the need for employees to interact with others

  • Problem solving and responsive thinking have become necessary skills for success on the job

  • Basic literacy skills are necessary in all jobs

  • New employee orientation allows for success in a new job

  • Professional certification leads to a need for training and preparation


Instructional staff

Instructional Staff

  • Some are from within the organization, while others come from outside

    • Depends on the size of the group, training topics, and cost

  • Interactive technology allows for networked meetings, conferences, and seminars

    • New opportunities


Training programs

Training Programs

  • On-the-job training is the most common type; includes apprenticeships, internships, and job rotation programs

    • Provide opportunity to learn more about their job in relation to others

  • On-site/off-job training may be voluntary, some opportunities available because of technology

    • Can make for heavy workload

  • Off-the-job site programs may be in the form of formal classroom instruction, seminars, simulations, and conferences

    • Numerous benefits can be gained from this


Development

Development

  • Focuses on improving general knowledge and abilities rather than job-specific skills

  • Development is broader in nature than training

  • Development process is the same as that for training . . . begins with needs analysis and ends with evaluation of program results

  • Purpose of management development is to develop competence for the future

  • Program geared to specific goals and objectives identified by the organization


Programs for managerial levels

Programs for Managerial Levels

  • First-line managers need to develop skills in the areas of interpersonal skills, communication, problem-solving, time management, supervision, and leadership

  • Middle managers require training in areas such as assertiveness, dealing with conflict, interpersonal and communication skills, balancing demands, delegation, and empowerment

  • Top-level managers need training in leadership, interpersonal skills, planning and organizing, crisis handling, and stress management


Development methods

On-the-job

Understudy assignments

Coaching and mentoring

Job rotation

On-site, off-the-job techniques

Other approaches

Assessment centers

Organizational development exercises

Decision making exercises

Leadership matches

Behavior modification

Development Methods


Evaluating for effectiveness

Evaluating for Effectiveness

  • Training must be evaluated systematically, process involves documenting end results

    • Compare behavior before and after training

    • Determine relevance of training for accomplishment of objectives

  • Training evaluation process requires a determination of whether or not a program has fulfilled its objectives, and to what extent


Kirkpatrick s method

Kirkpatrick’s Method

  • Reaction to the training program is the first criterion of effectiveness

  • Learning the content is the second level, to what extent

  • Behavior, performance, and attitude changes in the worker are the third level

  • The results (improvement) are the ultimate measurement


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