DNA & RNA
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DNA & RNA. DNA . What is it?. DNA. A chemical molecule that has all the information to run and build a living organism. Contains instructions for genes (inherited traits) and for proteins (structures and functions – like enzymes). Types of proteins.

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DNA & RNA

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Dna rna

DNA & RNA


Dna rna

DNA

What is it?


Dna rna

DNA

  • A chemical molecule that has all the information to run and build a living organism.

  • Contains instructions for genes (inherited traits) and for proteins (structures and functions – like enzymes)


Types of proteins

Types of proteins


Dna model deoxyribonucleic acid

Double stranded molecule with 2 sides called a helix

Looks like a twisted ladder structure

Rungs (steps) are called bases or nucleotides. (abbreviated as A, C, T, G)

Sides are made of sugar & phosphate molecules alternating

The sugar is deoxyribose

Found in every living cell in structures called chromosomes, inside the nucleus.

DNA MODEL (deoxyribonucleic acid)


Dna rna

Base pairs are:

A with T

C with G

always

nucleotide


Dna rna

Phosphate molecules

Deoxyribose (sugar) molecules

Nitrogen

bases

Notice base pairings:

A with T &C with G

Hydrogen

bonds

Sugar phosphate (backbone)

http://biology.about.com/library/weekly/aa051701a.htm


Dna replication copying itself

DNA replication (copying itself)

Required during growth or repair of cells.

The weak hydrogen bonds are unzipped by an enzyme called DNA helicase.

Free floating nucleotides from in the nucleus attach themselves to the exposed DNA strands.

DNA the new bases are “glued” or fused together with DNA polymerase and the 2 new molecules of DNA are formed.


Dna replication copying itself1

UNZIPPED BY HELICASE

DNA replication (copying itself)

ACGATGCAC

_________

GTA CGT

___ ___

___ ___

CAT GCA

CAT GCA

GTA CGT

TGC TAC GTG

2 NEW DNA STRANDS

COPIES OF EACH OTHER!

Glued BY polymerase


Who contributed to the discovery of the dna model timeline in text pg 292 293

who contributed to the discovery of the DNA model

Timeline in text pg 292-293


Dna rna

  • DNA is also responsible in making RNA in a process called transcription.

  • RNA will function as a template to help make proteins for the body.

  • Remember that proteins can be structural (muscles, hair, fingernails, etc) but can also be functional in the body systems like enzymes or hormones.

  • RNA differs from DNA in 4 main ways:

  • Single stranded

  • Ribose sugar

  • Uracil base instead of thymine

  • Moves out of nucleus to be functional.

8

9

bases

Add

As

11B

pairings

Sugar phosphate backbones

RNADNA

Ribonucleic aciddeoxyribonucleic acid


Dna rna

11

3 forms of RNA

mRNA messenger- comes out of nucleus to be the carrier of the code to make proteins. The code is read 3 bases at a time called the codon.

tRNA transfer – transfers the amino acids to the

growing protein or peptide chain- attaches to the

mRNA with an anticodon base pairing with the codon.

rRNA ribosomal- helps the ribosomes read the code on the mRNA, so the correct amino acids are delivered in the correct order.


Dna rna

DNA MAKES RNA IN A PROCESS CALLED TRANSCRIPTION.

An enzyme, RNA polymerase, separates the strands of DNA.

The free floating bases in the nucleus are attracted to the bases on the DNA strand. They assemble the same as in replication except URACIL bonds with ADENINE.

GTACGT

______

______

THE NEW FORMING mRNA strand

ACGATGCAC

_________

CAU GCA

TGCTACGTG

CATGCA


A protein is made by a process called translation

A protein is made by a process called translation.

Text pages 304-306

Know parts and how to read the circle (mRNA & inside out)

For what amino acids are part of new protein.


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