绿色化学 Green Chemistry. 重庆师范大学 Chongqing Normal University. Chapter one Introduction. Exploit and effectively utilize natural resources: Explore the natural world, and find useful chemical substances not known before.
Chongqing Normal University
Chapter one Introduction
Global warming is when the earth heats up (the temperature rises). It happens when greenhouse gases trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature. This hurts many people, animals, and plants. Many cannot take the change, so they die.
Greenhouse gasses are gasses are in the earth’s atmosphere that collect heat and light from the sun. With too many greenhouse gasses in the air, the earth’s atmosphere will trap too much heat and the earth will get too hot. As a result people, animals, and plants would die because the heat would be too strong.
An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, probably including expansion of subtropical deserts. Warming is expected to be strongest in the Arctic and would be associated with continuing retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice.
Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere.
Pollutants can be classified as primary or secondary:
Primary pollutants are directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption, the gas from a motor vehicle exhaust or sulfur dioxide released from factories.
Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact.
About 4 percent of deaths in the United States can be attributed to air pollution.
Sulfur oxides (SOx) - SO2 is produced by volcanoes and in various industrial processes. Since coal and petroleum often contain sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. Further oxidation of SO2, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as NO2, forms H2SO4, and thus acid rain.
Nitrogen oxides (NOx) - Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula NO2. This reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. NO2 is one of the most prominent air pollutants.
Carbon monoxide - is a colorless, odorless, non-irritating but very poisonous gas. It is a product by incomplete combustion of fuel such as natural gas, coal or wood.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) - a colorless, odorless, non-toxic greenhouse gas associated with ocean acidification, emitted from sources such as combustion, cement production, and respiration.
Volatile organic compounds - In this field they are often divided into the separate categories of methane (CH4) and non-methane (NMVOCs).
Particulate matter - Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM) or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas.
Persistent free radicals connected to airborne fine particles could cause cardiopulmonary disease.
Toxic metals, such as lead, cadmium and copper.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - harmful to the ozone layer emitted from products currently banned from use.
Acid rainAcid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, i.e. elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH). It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals, and infrastructure through the process of wet deposition.
Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.
Garbage siege is a more important problem for our Chinese people in current development stage.
Beijing is already surrounded by garbage.
Water pollution is a major global problem. It has been suggested that it is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases, and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily.
An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet.
Some 90% of China's cities suffer from some degree of water pollution, and nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water.
In addition to the acute problems of water pollution in developing countries, industrialized countries continue to struggle with pollution problems as well.
Living things manifoldness refers to the ensemble of all living creatures including plant, animals, micro-organism and other things.
One kind of plant disappears every 27 year, and nearly 90 kinds of vertebrates (脊椎动物)become extinct.
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Marine pollution occurs when harmful effects, or potentially harmful effects, can result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms. Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff and wind blown debris.
Red tide is a common name for a phenomenon more correctly known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of microorganisms), an event in which estuarine, marine, or fresh water algae accumulate rapidly in the water column and results in discoloration of the surface water. It is usually found in coastal areas.
Ammonia (NH3): emitted from agricultural processes. Ammonia is a compound with the formula NH3. It is normally encountered as a gas with a characteristic pungent odor. Ammonia contributes significantly to the nutritional needs of terrestrial organisms by serving as a precursor to foodstuffs and fertilizers. Ammonia, either directly or indirectly, is also a building block for the synthesis of many pharmaceuticals. Although in wide use, ammonia is both caustic and hazardous.
Odors: such as from garbage, sewage, and industrial processes.
Radioactive pollutants: produced by nuclear explosions, war explosives, and natural processes such as the radioactive decay of radon.
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Sustainable development (SD) is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but also for generations to come (sometimes taught as ELF-Environment, Local people, Future). The term was used by the Brundtland Commission which coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of sustainable development as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs."
The field of sustainable development can be conceptually broken into three constituent parts: environmentalsustainability, economic sustainability and sociopolitical sustainability.
A representation of sustainability showing how both economic and societal values are constrained by environmental limits.
Scheme of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts.