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Chapter 1. Section 3. Chapter 1: Matter & Change Section 3: Elements OBJECTIVES. Be able to define: group, family, period, metal, nonmetal, and metalloid.

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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Section 3


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements objectives

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements OBJECTIVES

  • Be able to define: group, family, period, metal, nonmetal, and metalloid.

  • Be able to identify and properly spell the name of an element when given its symbol and be able to write the symbol of an element, using problem conventions (first letter capitalized/second lowercase), when given the name of that element

  • Be able to describe the arrangement of the Periodic Table

  • Be able to distinguish the properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

  • Remember: Elements are _______ _____________ that cannot be decomposed by chemical changes. Elements serve as the building blocks of _________ and each has characteristic properties.

  • There are over ______ known elements that are organized into groups based on similar ______________ properties. The organization of these elements is called the _____________ ____________.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements1

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

  • Remember: Elements are PURE Substances that cannot be decomposed by chemical changes. Elements serve as the building blocks of matterand each has characteristic properties.

  • There are over ______ known elements that are organized into groups based on similar ______________ properties. The organization of these elements is called the _____________ ____________.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements2

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

  • Remember: Elements are PURE Substances that cannot be decomposed by chemical changes. Elements serve as the building blocks of matterand each has characteristic properties.

  • There are over 100known elements that are organized into groups based on similar chemicalproperties. The organization of these elements is called the periodic table.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements3

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

PERIODIC TABLE


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements4

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table:

  • Each square on the periodic table shows the ________ and the ________ ___________ for each element.

  • Each element has been assigned a symbol based on its name. Symbols may reflect older ________ of elements or languages other than English.

    Ex. Mercury (Hg) – hydrargyrum & Potassium (K) – kalium


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements5

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table:

  • Each square on the periodic table shows the symboland the atomic number for each element.

  • Each element has been assigned a symbol based on its name. Symbols may reflect older namesof elements or languages other than English.

    Ex. Mercury (Hg) – hydrargyrum & Potassium (K) – kalium


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements6

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements7

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • Generally, the first letter of the name of the element is used as its symbol and it is ALWAYS _______________.

    Ex. Hydrogen (H), Carbon (C), & Vanadium (V)

  • If elements begin with the same first letter, a second letter is used which is sounded in the name. The second letter is ALWAYS ___________.

    Ex. Carbon (C), Calcium (Ca), Chromium (Cr)


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements8

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • Generally, the first letter of the name of the element is used as its symbol and it is ALWAYS capitalized.

    Ex. Hydrogen (H), Carbon (C), & Vanadium (V)

  • If elements begin with the same first letter, a second letter is used which is sounded in the name. The second letter is ALWAYS lowercase.

    Ex. Carbon (C), Calcium (Ca), Chromium (Cr)


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements9

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

  • Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The ________ columns of the periodic table are called ________ or __________.

    • Each group contains elements with similar ___________ properties.

    • The two major categories of elements are ________ and _____________. ____________ have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements10

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

  • Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The verticalcolumns of the periodic table are called groupsor families.

    • Each group contains elements with similar __________properties.

    • The two major categories of elements are ________ and ____________. ____________ have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements11

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

  • Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The verticalcolumns of the periodic table are called groupsor families.

    • Each group contains elements with similar chemicalproperties.

    • The two major categories of elements are ________ and ____________. have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements12

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

  • Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The verticalcolumns of the periodic table are called groupsor families.

    • Each group contains elements with similar chemicalproperties.

    • The two major categories of elements are metals and nonmetals. Metalloidshave properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements13

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The horizontal ______ of elements in the periodic table are called _________.

  • Physical and chemical properties _________ somewhat regularly across a period.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements14

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The horizontal rowsof elements in the periodic table are called periods.

  • Physical and chemical properties _________ somewhat regularly across a period.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements15

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The horizontal rowsof elements in the periodic table are called periods.

  • Physical and chemical properties change somewhat regularly across a period.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements16

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The two sets of elements places below the periodic table make up the _______________ series and _____________ series.

  • These ____________ elements fit into the table after elements _____ and _____. They are placed below the table to keep it from being ______ _______.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements17

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The two sets of elements places below the periodic table make up the lanthanideseries and actinideseries.

  • These ____________ elements fit into the table after elements _____ and _____. They are placed below the table to keep it from being ______ _______.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements18

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

I. Introduction to the Periodic Table

  • The two sets of elements places below the periodic table make up the lanthanideseries and actinideseries.

  • These metallicelements fit into the table after elements 57and 89. They are placed below the table to keep it from being too wide.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements19

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Metals:

A metal is an element that is a good ___________ ____________ and a good _______ conductor.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements20

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Metals:

A metal is an element that is a goodelectrical conductor and a good heat conductor.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements21

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Properties of metals

  • Most are ________ at room temperature

  • ____________ - they can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets

  • Ductile - they can be drawn into a ______ _______.

  • Conduct electricity and heat well


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements22

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Properties of metals

  • Most are solidat room temperature

  • Malleable- they can be hammered or rolled into thin sheets

  • Ductile - they can be drawn into a fine wire.

  • Conduct electricity and heat well


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements23

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Copper: A Typical Metal

  • Copper is a ___________ color and has a __________ luster.

    • It is found naturally in minerals such as Chalcopyrite & Malachite


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements24

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Copper: A Typical Metal

  • Copper is a reddishcolor and has a metallicluster.

    • It is found naturally in minerals such as Chalcopyrite & Malachite


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements25

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Nonmetals:

A nonmetal is an element that is a ______ conductor of heat and electricity.

(a) carbon, (b) sulfur, (c) phosphorus, and (d) iodine


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements26

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Nonmetals:

A nonmetal is an element that is a poorconductor of heat and electricity.

(a) carbon, (b) sulfur, (c) phosphorus, and (d) iodine


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements27

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Properties of nonmetals

  • Many are _________

  • Solids are ___________

  • Poor conductors of heat and electricity


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements28

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Properties of nonmetals

  • Many are gases.

  • Solids are brittle.

  • Poor conductors of heat and electricity


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements29

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Phosphorus: A Typical Nonmetal

  • 1 of ___ solid nonmetals. It is known in two common forms: ______ phosphorus – dark red powder & _________ phosphorus – waxy solid that ignites at room temperature.

  • Phosphorus is too reactive to exist in pure form in nature.

  • All living things contain phosphorus.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements30

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Phosphorus: A Typical Nonmetal

  • 1 of 5solid nonmetals. It is known in two common forms: redphosphorus – dark red powder & whitephosphorus – waxy solid that ignites at room temperature.

  • Phosphorus is too reactive to exist in pure form in nature.

  • All living things contain phosphorus.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements31

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Metalloids:

  • A metalloid is an element that has some characteristics of _________ and some characteristics of _____________.

  • Metalloids are found

    ____________ the metals

    and nonmetals on the

    periodic table.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements32

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Metalloids:

  • A metalloid is an element that has some characteristics of Metals and some characteristics of Nonmetals.

  • Metalloids are found

    ____________ the metals

    and nonmetals on the

    periodic table.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements33

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Metalloids:

  • A metalloid is an element that has some characteristics of Metals and some characteristics of Nonmetals.

  • Metalloids are found

    betweenthe metals

    and nonmetals on the

    periodic table.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements34

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Properties of metalloids

  • All metalloids are __________ at room temperature

  • Less ______________ than metals, but not as _________ as nonmetals

  • _________________________ of electricity

    • Ex. used in circuitry found in desktop computers, digital watches, TVs and radios.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements35

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Properties of metalloids

  • All metalloids are solidat room temperature

  • Less malleable than metals, but not as brittle asnonmetals.

  • _________________________ of electricity

    • Ex. used in circuitry found in desktop computers, digital watches, TVs and radios.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements36

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Properties of metalloids

  • All metalloids are solidat room temperature

  • Less malleable than metals, but not as brittle

  • Semiconductorsof electricity

    • Ex. used in circuitry found in desktop computers, digital watches, TVs and radios.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements37

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Noble Gases

  • Noble gases are the elements in Group ___ of the periodic table.

  • They are generally _____________ and are gases at _______ temperature.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements38

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Noble Gases

  • Noble gases are the elements in Group 18 of the periodic table.

  • They are generally unreactiveand are gases at roomtemperature.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements39

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Noble Gases

  • Neon, argon, krypton

    and xenon are used

    in ______________,

    whereas helium is used

    in party/weather balloons

    because it is ______

    _________ than air.


Chapter 1 matter change section 3 elements40

Chapter 1: Matter & ChangeSection 3: Elements

Noble Gases

  • Neon, argon, krypton

    and xenon are used

    in lighting,

    whereas helium is used

    in party/weather balloons

    because it is less dense

    than air.


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