The United States of America and Its Origins 33,000 B.C. – 1909 A.D. Chapter 1, New World Beginnings. There was the theory of Pangaea, that everything was one big continent then broke away to what we have now.
The United States of America and Its Origins33,000 B.C. – 1909 A.D.
Republicanism was when citizens willingly subordinated their private interests for the common good.
European goods meant for America had to be checked by Britain first.
Sugar Act & Stamp Act gave people a trial without a jury,
The Boston Port Act – harbors were closed until damages were paid.
A statue of King George III was made, but was later defaced.
London government expected Americans to make products needed for themselves to save Britain time & money.
Colonists bought more from Britain then they sold, so they ran out of gold and silver and started using household items.
America bought ¼ of British exports and ½ of their shipping was devoted to American trade.
Since tea was smuggled at a cheap prices, colonists didn’t take taxes seriously.
Before the Declaration of Independence, persecution of Loyalists was relatively mild.
“Model Treaty” was used to guide the American Commissioners it was about to dispatch the French court.
Settlers practiced a kind of Republicanism in their Democratic town meetings and annual elections.
Thomas Paine wrote “Common Sense.”
When Benjamin Franklin arrived in Paris he was determined that his appearance should hold a diplomatic revolution.
In 1780, Catherine the Great of Russia took the lead in organizing the Armed Neutrality.
Franklin, instead of wearing the customary ceremonial sword, he carried only a plain white walking stick.
Americans were still depending on Britain but disliked it greatly.
British soldiers did not reckon with General Benedict Arnold.
The fight for separation of church and state was fierce.
The 13 Original Colonies were similar in governmental structure and constitutions.
The Second Continental Congress discussed mostly military control and foreign affairs.
Delegates wanted to save idealism and make it to imperialism.
A Philadelphia newspaper encouraged people to make their own choices.
Paper money was invented.
Loyalist had their land confiscated and turned into smaller farms.
Goods from Britain were cut off and the Yankees had to make their own.
State governments borrowed more money than they could repay during the war.
Some states refused to pay anything while complaining about the tyranny of “kind congress.
States were taxing each other for food and trash.
The Constitution was ratified in 1789.
The Proclamation proclaimed the government’s neutrality but advised American citizens to be impartial to both sides.
Treaty of Greenville gave up territory to the old Northwest.
The Sedition Act was a direct slap to the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
General Washington was drafted as president by the Electoral College.
Many Jeffersonian Democratic – Republicans favored honoring the alliance.
Hamilton and Washington wanted to avoid the war as much as possible.
Hamilton’s financial policies lost him the popular vote.
In 1793 the economy was unstable.
America’s population was still 90% rural.
All but 5% of America’s population lived in the Appalachian mountains.
Many anti-federalists criticized the Constitution.
In 1793 the nation was politically feeble.
The Federalists used heavy handicaps like their Alien and Sedition Acts.
Jefferson was inaugurated on March 3, 1801.
Excise tax was repealed.
Adams refused to fight with France.
Military was reduced to a police force.
Alliances were won through “peaceful coercion.”
Jefferson believed in God, but rumors of his alleged Atheism angered preachers throughout New England.
War preparations swelled the public debts which led to new taxes, including the stamp act.
The military was too much so they minimized it to lower taxes.
On April 30, 1803, the Louisiana purchase was made.
The Embargo Act, U.S. was forbidden to export goods.
The Federalist party died out.
The Treaty of Ghent was an armistice.
Both sides agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered territory.
The Federalist ran a candidate for the last time in 1816.
John Marshall invoked the Hamiltonian doctrine of implied powers.
Monroe negotiated the Treaty of 1818 with Britain.
Francis Scott King wrote “The Star Spangled Banner.”
School textbooks were now being written by Americans, for Americans.
American painters started to celebrate their native landscapes.
The War of 1812 bred greater American Independence.
A revived Bank of the United States was voted by the congress in 1816.
Catastrophe of 1819 caused the population to drop.
The army was ill trained, ill disciplined and scattered.
British forces were weakest in Canada.
Chapter 19Drifting Toward Disunion
1857, the Dread Scott case invalidates the Missouri Compromise.
1852, Uncle Tom’s Cabin is published. It became a very powerful piece and sparked up hatred that was a cause for the Civil War. It also sod several hundred thousand copies.
The North and South had very powerful arguments over the fate of Nebraska
The “Know-Nothing” group is created and are well known Nativists and anti-Catholics.
Hinton Helper published “The Impending Crisis of the South” as a response to Stowe’s novel.
The Panic of 1857 was caused by inflation due to the CA Gold Rush. It was very psychologically damaging and near 5,000 businesses shut down within the year. It had a much worse affect on the Northern states because of the businesses shutting down as opposed to farms.
Civil War had already broken out in Kansas between slave holders and abolitionists.
Chapter 20Girding for War: The North and the South
Abraham Lincoln swears in as president March 4, 1861.
As president Lincoln violated several constitutional laws in fevered attempts to preserve the Union.
South Carolina opened fire on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. Starting what was known then as a war to preserve the unity of the United States.
The North had both the Naval power and the benefit of the economy, whereas the South had a much more organized military due to training of Southern men with a gun from a young age.
The Trent Affair in 1861 got the British involved when a British ship attempted to remove Confederate Diplomats from America and was barded by Union troops.
In 1863 there was a draft that was started but it was rather corrupt and easily avoided.
The National Banking System was established in 1863.
The war left the North with a very quickly expanding economy and the South devastated.
Chapter 21The Furnace of the Civil War
As president of the Union, Lincoln decided that an attack on a small force at Bull Run would be a good strategy, but it backfired due to the Union’s loss of the battle.
McClellan then decides to attempt to take Richmond which fails, leading to a very important Southern victory and McClellan losing control of his troop.
Soon after this Lincoln began to draft the Emancipation Proclamation.
After McClellan’s defeat at Richmond, Robert E. Lee launched the 2nd battle of Bull Run where he easily beat out Pope’s forces, and then made the foolish mistake of going for another attack at Antietam. This battle was the downhill point for the South.
Immediately after the battle Lincoln gave the Emancipation Proclamation, promising that post-war there would be a 13 Amendment to free all slaves.
After the EP many blacks in the North entered the ranks, comprising 10% of the Union forces.
From July 1, 1863 until July 3rd the battle of Gettysburg was fought, and once again was won by the North because of Lee’s hasty and cocky personality.
The final battle came at Appomattox when Lee finally surrenders to Grant.
Chapter 22The Ordeal of Reconstruction
The idea of “freedom” was very vague after the war.
Once freed Congress created the Freedman’s Bureau to help educate, organize, and care for former slaves.
After President Lincoln’s assassination Andrew Johnson took over. He was the only Southern politician to side with the North.
Lincoln had drafted the 10% reconstruction plan, meaning that 10% of a Southern state had to vote on and agree to the plans of rebuilding. Republicans believed that the states need a 50% agreement.
In order to find a loophole to slavery many Southerners established Black Codes which were binding contracts.
As the Congress reunited there was a proposed Civil Rights Bill which was vetoed and instead the 14th Amendment was created and ratified in 1868.
The Reconstruction Act was passed March, 1867.
Women were unhappy with being denied suffrage, but were not heard.
The South was still very displeased with Blacks being free, leading to the founding of organizations such as the KKK.
Chapter 23Political Paralysis in the Gilded Age
In 1868 Grant won the presidential election through the use of his war hero stature.
Theft and corruption was common in post Civil-war era. Two men, Fisk and Gould attempted to claim all gold marketing for themselves. Boss Tweed was a corrupt politician who gave in to bribery, conning, and rigging elections.
Thomas Nast was a very well known, expert satirical cartoonist.
The election of 1872 was a very brutal one, but Grant beat Greeley, the Liberal Republican/Democratic nominee.
The Panic of 1873 took a fairly heavy toll on the economy and the ideology of the people.
Mark Twain coined the name Gilded Age because it seemed pleasant on the surface, but was truly corrupt and shameful.
Hayes wins the election of 1876 and establishes the Compromise of 1877 which removed US soldiers occupying the South.
The Jim Crow Laws introduced and justified segregation of the South.
Garfield is president for a short while and is assassinated. He is then succeeded by VP Arthur, and in the election of 1884 Grover Cleveland is nominated.
Chapter 24Industry Comes of Age
The train quickly became a piece of American culture with the track stretching from 35,000 miles in 1865 to over 190,000 miles in 1900
The plans for the Union Pacific Railroad were to allow tracks to go from Omaha, Nebraska out to California, and the Central Pacific went east from California.
In NYC Cornelius Vanderbilt began to improve upon the train idea with the use of steel tracks, an air brake, a luxury passenger car, and putting telegraphs on the train.
The use of the “Iron Horse” created a gigantic boom in business and trade.
Alexander Graham Bell creates the telephone and Thomas Edison creates the light bulb among other things.
Cities grew up and out.
The skyscraper was made by perfecting the elevator.
Macy’s attracted urban middle-class shoppers and provided jobs for men and women.
Federal laws lengthened the list of undesirables.
The Chinese were the first ethnic group to be legally discriminated against.
Darwin broke new ground with his theory of “natural selection.”
Darwinism was survival of the fittest meaning only the strongest and wisest would survive.
Clergymen and theologians didn’t respond well to Darwin’s theory.
America’s were soon realizing that a government can’t function successfully if the people are uneducated.
Music and Art were soon gaining popularity.
Classical architecture was making a comeback.