Procedural sedation paediatrics
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Procedural Sedation: Paediatrics. Dr. Rodrick Lim MD, FRCPC, FAAP Site Chief Paediatric Emergency Department Associate Professor of Paediatrics Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry London Ontario Canada. Goals:. Define procedural sedation and it’s goals

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Procedural Sedation: Paediatrics

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Procedural sedation paediatrics

Procedural Sedation: Paediatrics

Dr. Rodrick Lim MD, FRCPC, FAAP

Site Chief Paediatric Emergency Department

Associate Professor of Paediatrics

Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry

London Ontario Canada

2011 Talk Trauma


Goals

Goals:

  • Define procedural sedation and it’s goals

  • An ED checklist for safe procedural sedation

  • Factors to consider before embarking on procedural sedation

  • Updates on Pediatric use of Ketamine and Propofol

2011 Talk Trauma


Procedural sedation

Procedural Sedation

  • Sedative and analgesic agents are used to reduce the anxiety and pain experienced by patients during proceduresin order to:

    • Decrease the length of time necessary to perform a procedure

    • Increases the likelihood of success

    • Reduces the potential risk of injury to the patient or health care worker because of uncontrolled movements

2011 Talk Trauma


Spectrum of sedation

Spectrum of Sedation

  • Procedural sedation involves altered levels of consciousness

    • Minimal

    • Moderate

    • Deep

    • Dissociative sedation levels

  • Can be safely and effectively performed in the ED by emergency physicians

2011 Talk Trauma


Procedural sedation1

Procedural Sedation

  • Agents commonly used for sedation of patients in the ED include but are not limited to opioids, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates, as well as other specific Commonly used agents include:

    • Ketamine

    • Propofol

    • Etomidate

    • Nitrous oxide.

2011 Talk Trauma


Goals1

Goals:

  • Define Procedural Sedation and it’s goals

  • An ED checklist for safe Procedural Sedation

  • Factors to consider before embarking on Procedural sedation

  • Updates on Pediatric use of Ketamine, Propofol

2011 Talk Trauma


Procedural sedation in your ed

Procedural Sedation in Your ED

  • Sedation in the Emergency Department

  • Revised and approved by the ACEP Board of Director

  • Ann Emerg Med. 2011;57:469

2011 Talk Trauma


Acep checklist

ACEP Checklist

  • Emergency physicians who have received the appropriate training and skills necessary to safely provide procedural sedation

  • Familiar with the pharmaceutical agents they use and be prepared to manage their potential complications.

2011 Talk Trauma


Acep checklist1

ACEP Checklist

  • The appropriate drugs and dosages must be chosen and administered in an appropriately monitored setting, and a patient evaluation should be performed before, during, and after their use

2011 Talk Trauma


Acep checklist2

ACEP Checklist

  • Institutional and departmental guidelines related to the sedation of patients should include credentialing and verification of competency of providers, selection and preparation of patients, informed consent, equipment and monitoring requirements, staff training and competency verification, criteria for discharge, and continuous quality improvement

2011 Talk Trauma


Goals2

Goals:

  • Define Procedural Sedation and it’s goals

  • An ED checklist for safe Procedural Sedation

  • Factors to consider before embarking on Procedural sedation

  • Updates on Pediatric use of Ketamine, Propofol

2011 Talk Trauma


Factors

Factors:

  • Indication

  • Contraindication – Relative or Absolute

  • Risks of Proceeding

  • Risks of Not Proceeding

  • What alternatives are available

2011 Talk Trauma


Factors our case

Factors: Our Case

  • Indication

  • Contraindication – Relative or Absolute

  • Risks of Proceeding

  • Risks of Not Proceeding

  • What alternatives are available

2011 Talk Trauma


Goals3

Goals:

  • Define Procedural Sedation and it’s goals

  • An ED checklist for safe Procedural Sedation

  • Factors to consider before embarking on Procedural sedation

  • Updates on Pediatric use of Ketamine, Propofol

2011 Talk Trauma


Procedural sedation paediatrics

  • Clinical Practice Guideline for Emergency Department Ketamine Dissociative Sedation: 2011 Update

    Steven M. Green, Mark G. Roback, Robert M. Kennedy, Baruch Krauss

    Annals of Emergency Medicine Volume 57(5): 449-461

2011 Talk Trauma


Contraindications absolute

Contraindications: Absolute

  • Infants younger than 3 months

    • Multiple case reports of airway obstruction, laryngospasm, and apnea. Consistent with other agents, representing infant-specific differences in airway anatomy and reactivity and laryngeal excitability

  • Exacerbates Schizophrenia and alternative agents should be used

2011 Talk Trauma


Contraindications relative

Contraindications: Relative

  • Age 3months-12 months now omitted as relative contraindication 2011

  • Green SM, Roback MG, Krauss B, et al. Predictors of airway and respiratory adverse events with ketamine sedation in the emergency department: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of 8,282 children. Ann Emerg Med. 2009;54:158-168.

2011 Talk Trauma


Contraindications relative1

Contraindications: Relative

  • Major procedures stimulating the posterior pharynx (eg.endoscopy) increase the risk of laryngospasm, whereas typical minor ED oropharyngeal procedures do not (New to 2011)

  • History of airway instability, tracheal surgery, or tracheal stenosis (presumed higher risk of airway complications)

2011 Talk Trauma


Contraindications relative2

Contraindications: Relative

  • Active pulmonary infection or disease, including upper respiratory infection or asthma (higher risk of laryngospasm)

  • Known or suspected cardiovascular disease, including angina, heart failure, or hypertension (exacerbation caused by sympathomimetic properties of ketamine)

2011 Talk Trauma


Contraindications relative3

Contraindications: Relative

  • Avoid ketamine in patients who are already hypertensive

  • Central nervous system masses, abnormalities, or hydrocephalus (increased intracranial pressure with ketamine)

  • Head Injury removed as Relative Contraindication 2011

2011 Talk Trauma


Contraindications relative4

Contraindications: Relative

  • Glaucoma or acute globe injury (increased intraocular pressure with ketamine)

  • Porphyria, thyroid disorder, or thyroid medication (enhanced sympathomimetic effect)

2011 Talk Trauma


Other highlights

Other Highlights

  • Route of Administration

    • Emphasis on IV over IM route when feasible

  • Coadministered Medications

    • Routine prophylactic anticholinergics no longer recommended

    • Routine prophylactic benzodiazepines may benefit adults but not children

    • Prophylactic ondansetron can slightly reduce vomiting

2011 Talk Trauma


Procedural sedation paediatrics

Emergency Physician- AdministeredPropofolSedation: A Report of 25,433 Sedations from the PediatricSedation Research Consortium

Michael D. Mallory, Amy L. Baxter, Daniel J. Yanosky, Joseph P. Cravero and PediatricSedation Research Consortium

Annals of Emergency Medicine Volume 57(5): 462-468

2011 Talk Trauma


Propofol pediatrics

Propofol: Pediatrics

  • More serious adverse events occurred in 581 sedations (2.28%; 95% confidence interval 2.1% to 2.5%).

  • There were 2 instances of aspiration, 1 unplanned intubation, and 1 cardiac arrest.

2011 Talk Trauma


Propofol pediatrics1

Propofol: Pediatrics

  • Significant predictors of serious adverse events were:

    • weight less than or equal to 5 kg

    • American Society of Anesthesiologists classification greater than 2

    • Adjunctive medications (benzodiazepines, ketamine, opioids, or anticholinergics)

    • Nonpainfulprocedures, and primary diagnoses of upper respiratory illness or prematurity

2011 Talk Trauma


Back to case

Back To Case:

  • Important Points:

    • Procedural Sedation is Safe and Effective when used properly, with mechanisms in place to ensure proper training, monitoring and continual quality improvement

    • If/When/What are best answered when considering individuals patients indications, contraindications, urgency and potential risks of proceeding vs. not proceeding

2011 Talk Trauma


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