key process 3 agriculture in developing regions
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Key Process #3 Agriculture in Developing Regions

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Key Process #3 Agriculture in Developing Regions. Agriculture in Developing Regions. Most people in LCD farm to produce food for their own consumption Subsistence- Farming for your own family. Shifting Cultivation.

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agriculture in developing regions
Agriculture in Developing Regions
  • Most people in LCD farm to produce food for their own consumption
  • Subsistence- Farming for your own family
shifting cultivation
Shifting Cultivation
  • Vegetation “slashed” and then burned. Soil remains fertile for 2-3 years. Then people move on.
      • where: tropical rainforests. Amazon, Central and West Africa, Southeast Asia
      • Crops: upland rice (S.E. Asia), maize and manioc (S. America), millet and sorghum (Africa)‏
  • Declining at hands of ranching and logging.
intensive subsistence agriculture
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
  • cultivate small amount of lands very effectively
    • Labor intensive
    • Primitive methods
    • Terrace Farms or

sawah fields

    • Double Cropping
      • Corn and Wheat
intensive subsistence agriculture1
Intensive subsistence agriculture
  • the form of ag used in areas of high density such as East, South, and Southeast Asia.
  • characterized by high efficiency farming practices that yield a large number of crops per small amount of land.
    • The intensive ag in Asia is subdivided into “wet rice dominant” and “wet rice not dominant”.
    • Aside from the obvious difference in what is grown, the two classifications are quite similar.
      • They each use the land intensively, primarily using human power with some animal and hand tool assistance.
      • crop rotation may be practiced, as well as
        • double cropping- obtaining two harvests from one field in one year.
intensive subsistence agriculture2
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture
  • Wet Rice Dominant
    • where: S.E. Asia, E. India, S.E. China
    • very labor intensive production of rice, including transfer to sawah, or paddies
    • most important source of food in Asia
        • grown on flat, or terraced land

Double cropping is used in warm winter areas of S. China and Taiwan

The Fields of Bali

Thai Rice Farmers

pastoral nomadism
Pastoral Nomadism

The breeding and herding of domesticated animals for subsistence.

  • where: arid and semi-arid areas of N. Africa, Middle East, Central Asia
  • animals: Camel, Goats, Sheep, Cattle
  • transhumance: seasonal migrations from highlands to lowlands

Most nomads are being pressured into sedentary life as land is used for agriculture or mining.

Bedouin Shepherd

Somali Nomad and Tent

plantation farming
Plantation farming
  • found in the tropics and subtropics.
    • Plantation- a large farm that specializes in one or two crops, typically cash crops (cotton, sugarcane, coffee, rubber, and tobacco, cocoa, bananas, tea, palm oil, etc.)
    • These types are farms are isolated in sparsely settled locations and are thus quite self-sufficient.
      • Often owned by N. Americans or Europeans
      • After the outlawing of slavery in the U.S., many of the plantations were sold or subdivided as the ample source of cheap labor was no longer an option
key issue 3 where are agricultural regions in more developed countries
Key Issue 3: Where are agricultural regions in more developed countries
  • The methods of farming typically found in MDC’s are: 6 Methods
    • Mixed crop and livestock farming: common in the U.S. west of the Appalachians and in much of Europe from France to Russia.
      • integration of crops and livestock. Most of the crops are fed to animals rather than humans.
      • nearly all of the land is used for crop growing, but more than 75% the profits come from the sale of animal products
      • Crop rotation is actively used in mixed farming
      • two of the most frequent are corn and soybeans
mixed crop and livestock farming
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming

Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming

Where: Ohio to Dakotas, center in Iowa; much of Europe from France to Russia

  • crops: corn (most common), soybeans
  • In U.S. 80% of grain production is fed to pigs and cattle!
  • Highly inefficient use of natural resource
    • Pounds of grain to make 1 lb. beef: 10
    • Gallons of water to make 1 1b wheat: 25
    • Gallons of water to make 1 1b. beef: 2500

The Meatrix

dairy farming
Dairy Farming

2. Most important type of commercial ag practiced on farms near the northeast U.S., southeast Canada, and northwest Europe.

  • Dairy farms must be nearer their market areas than other products because their product spoils quickly;
  • milkshed- the ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling.
    • Improvements in transportation have increased the range of dairy farms, but they are mainly still located near large urban areas. Those dairy farms that are farther from the cities tend to sell their product to processors who make butter, cheese, etc, because these products keep longer than milk.
    • What are some challenges for dairy farmers?
world milk production
World Milk Production

Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment. It is usually high in MDCs, especially production per capita, and varies considerably in LDCs.

milk production in mdcs ldcs 1960 2005
Milk Production in MDCs & LDCs1960-2005

Milk production has grown more rapidly in LDCs than in MDCs since the 1960s.

grain farming
Grain Farming
  • Typically done in the Great Plains states of the U.S.
    • The U.S. is by far the world’s largest producer of grain.
      • the winter wheat area (the crop is planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter, and is harvested in the early summer) like Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado;
      • the spring wheat belt (the crop is planted in spring and harvested in the late summer) in the Dakotas, Montana;
      • third important area is in the Palouse region of Washington state.
      • Wheat is an important crop because it is highly exportable and is a source of economic and political strength for its largest producers, like the U.S. and Canada.
      • India & China largest producers of wheat
world corn production
World Corn Production

The U.S. accounts for about 40% of world corn (maize) production. China is the 2nd

largest producer. Much of the corn in both countries is used for animal feed.

world wheat production
World Wheat Production

China is the world’s leading wheat producer, but the U.S. is the largest producer of wheat for sale and the largest exporter.

mediterranean agriculture
Mediterranean Agriculture

4. Exists mainly in the lands that border the Mediterranean Sea in S. Europe, N. Africa, and W. Asia. It has spread to parts of California, Chile, South Africa, and Australia as well.

  • Land is usually hilly or mountainous w/ hot dry summers and moderate winters
  • Most of the food grown in this style of farming is for human consumption and is typically of high value such as olives and grapes
  • Horticulture- the growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers forms the base of Med. ag.
  • CA devoted to citrus fruits, tree nuts, & deciduous fruits along w/ grapes
commercial gardening fruit farming
Commercial Gardening/Fruit Farming

5. Main farming found in the U.S. southeast.

  • Also called truck farming- growing many of the fruits and vegetables demanded in more developed societies.
    • Apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, mushrooms, tomatoes
  • Highly efficient & make use of machinery and cheap labor in every facet of the process.
livestock ranching
Livestock Ranching

6. Commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area.

  • In MDC’s it is practiced in lands where the vegetation is too sparse and the soil too poor to support crops.
  • The cattle were taken to market via cattle trails and railways in the 19th century, but more recently by semi-trucks and interstate highways.
  • Cattle ranching is done in other parts of the world where wide open lands are available, and are better suited to supporting cows than crops.
  • Sedentary ag w/ use of barbed wire hit hard against ranching
  • Today much of the livestock are sent to farms to fatten up or to local feed lots rather than to meat processors
  • Interior of Australia, Spain & Portugal, Pampas of Argentina, S. Brazil, and Uruguay are other areas where ranching occurs
  • China is the largest producer of meat then U.S.
livestock ranching1
Livestock Ranching

Environmental effects:

1) overgrazing has damaged much of the world’s arid grasslands (< 1% of U.S. remain!)‏

2) destruction of the rainforest is motivated by Brazilian desires for fashionable cattle ranches

meat production
Meat Production

Cattle, sheep and goats are the main meat animals raised on ranches.

labor force in agriculture
Labor Force in Agriculture

A large proportion of workers in most LDCs are in agriculture, while only a small percentage of workers in MDCs are engaged in agriculture.