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MEC3. LESSON 133. REVERSAL OF WORD ORDER. A reversal of word order may occur in a number of situations, including cases in which certain adverbs, adverbial expressions, and negative conjunctions are placed at the beginning of a sentence. Rewrite these sentences:.

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Mec3

MEC3

LESSON 133


Reversal of word order

REVERSAL OF WORD ORDER

  • A reversal of word order may occur in a number of situations, including cases in which certain adverbs, adverbial expressions, and negative conjunctions are placed at the beginning of a sentence.


Rewrite these sentences

Rewrite these sentences:

  • You must never go to that bar in your life.

    ________________________________________

    2. You should not miss one of your jiu jitsu practice. (on no account)

    ________________________________________

    3. Paul only recognized Sarah a few minutes later.

    ________________________________________

Never in your life must you go to that bar.

On no account should you miss one of your jiu jitsu practice.

Only a few minutes later did Paul recognize Sarah.


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SHOULD YOU ACCEPT

SHOULD JOANNE QUIT

  • In no case _________________ your mother’s money. (you should accept)

  • On no account __________________her job. (Joanne should quit)

  • Never _________ such an idiot person. (I have seen)

  • Only after a very difficult and dangerous operation ________________ walk again. (he will be able to)

  • Rarely ______________________the house on weekends. They have lots of exercises to correct. (CCAA teachers leave)

HAVE I SEEN

WILL HE BE ABLE TO

DO CCAA TEACHER LEAVE


Newspaper headlines

NEWSPAPER HEADLINES

  • TO REPORT RECENT NEWS – use the SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE, not the PRESENT PERFECT.

  • FUTURE OR PLANNED ARRANGEMENT – use TO, not WILL, GOING TO, etc.

  • ARTICLES and AUXILIARY VERBS are omitted.

  • Verbs that are transitive can be used intransitively.


Rewrite the sentences

Rewrite the sentences:

  • Our President will sign a contract.

  • A bomb has exploded in a shopping mall and killed five people.

  • The discovery of a new planet has shocked everybody.

PRESIDENT TO SIGN CONTRACT.

BOMB EXPLODES IN SHOPPING MALL AND KILLED 5.

DISCOVERY OF NEW PLANET SHOCKS.


Causative form

CAUSATIVE FORM

  • WON’T HAVE + SOMEONE + DO/DOING

    means not to allow or accept that someone do something.

    I won´t have Jack smoke/smoking in my bedroom.


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  • WON’T HAVE + SOMETHING + DONE

    means not to allow or accept that something be done.

    I won´t have my house turned into a pigpen.


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  • GET + SOMEONE + TO DO

    often suggests a degree of PERSUATION.

    I finally got all my students to speak only English in class.


Causative form review

CAUSATIVE FORM - REVIEW

TO SUBSTITUTE

  • You will never get him __________________ you tomorrow morning. He’s extremely busy. (to substitute)

  • I won’t have Sue ___________me orders. (to give)

  • Sorry, Sarah, but I won’t have your husband __________ my DVD. I just don’t trust him. (to repair)

  • Are you absolutely sure you can have Kátia ______ me with my paper? That would be fantastic! (to help)

  • You can tell your friends to eat somewhere else. I won’t have my house _____________ a restaurant. (to turn into)

  • Jill finally got Phil __________ the roof. (to repair)

  • I got Jack __________ my house. (to paint)

GIVE/GIVING

REPAIR/ REPAIRING

HELP

TURNED INTO

TO FIX

TO PAINT


Future

FUTURE

  • FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE indicates that an action will be IN PROGRESS in a certain period of time in the future.

  • FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE emphasizes the duration of an event in the future that will have already started before another future event takes place or at a specific point of time in the future.


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WILL HAVE BEEN HELPING

  • By this time next week you _____________________ my friend Jessica for over a week. (help)

  • By Christmas, I ______________________ in this office for ten long years. (work)

  • At this time tomorrow, he _____________ . (work)

  • She ______________dinner with her parents tomorrow at seven. (have)

  • By the time I get home, Martha __________________ for two hours. (sleep)

WILL HAVE BEEN WORKING

WILL BE WORKING

WILL BE HAVING

WILL HAVE BEEN SLEEPING


Could have might have should have must have

COULD HAVE/MIGHT HAVESHOULD HAVE/MUST HAVE

  • COULD HAVE/MIGHT HAVE can be used to refer to an UNREALIZED PAST POSSIBILITY, that is, something that was possible but DIDN´T HAPPEN.

  • SHOULD HAVE can be used to refer to an action that was ADVISABLE but not done.

  • MUST HAVE denotes a HIGH DEGREE OF PROBABILITY. In the negative, CAN’T HAVE is used.


Choose the best choice

CHOOSE THE BEST CHOICE:

  • Jane, why didn’t you go to the party last night? You __________ yourself a bit.

    ( ) could enjoy ( ) should enjoy

    ( ) could have enjoyed ( ) might enjoy

  • Dennis isn’t feeling well. I told him he___________ so much chocolate.

    ( ) could have eaten( ) should eat

    ( ) might not eat ( ) shouldn’t have eaten

x

x


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x

  • You _____ forgotten to buy the fish I asked you this morning.

    ( ) mustn’t have ( ) can’t have

    ( ) shouldn’t have( ) wouldn’t have

  • It’s 11 p.m. and Paul hasn’t arrived yet. He _____ worked overtime again.

    ( ) must have( ) can have

    ( ) could have( ) should have

  • Mr. Sardella ______ won the championship last month if he hadn’t gotten hurt.

    ( ) should have ( ) could have

    ( ) must have( ) can have

x

x


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x

  • You were lucky you didn’t fall. You ...... yourself.

    ( ) could have killed ( )could kill

    ( )kill ( )ought to kill

  • John ..... himself doing such a dangerous thing. Fortunately, nothing happened.

    ( )might hurt ( )will have hurt

    ( )could hurt ( )might have hurt

  • Meg is terribly sick but she never follows the doctors’ orders. She ...... drinking last year.

    ( )could have quit( )might have quit

    ( )should have quit( )must have quit

  • The lights went out. Jack ...... to pay the bill.

    ( )must have forgotten ( )could forget

    ( )should have forgotten ( )must forget

x

x

x


Present subjunctive

PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE

  • It is used:

  • In certain fixed expressions:

  • Heaven HELP us!

  • God SAVE the King.

  • Peace BE with you.

  • Heaven FORBID.


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b) In that-clauses, after verbs like suggest, insist, request, require, ask, order, demand, beg and other verbs of requesting, commanding, urging or recommending.

  • My sister insisted that I take the present.

  • The doctor recommended that I stop eating sweets.


Past subjunctive

PAST SUBJUNCTIVE

  • It is used to express an improbable event in the present or future.

  • If I had the money, I would go to the Big Apple.

IF + SIMPLE PAST + WOULD


Past perfect subjuntive

PAST PERFECT SUBJUNTIVE

  • It is used t express an imaginary event in the past.

  • If Susie hadn’t been so rude to Jonathan, he would have helped her.

IF + PAST PERFECT + WOULD HAVE


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WISH

  • The PAST PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE is used after wish to refer to a situation which already took place in the past and which the speaker is sorry about.

  • Edward wishes he hadn’t told his mother a lie. Now he is grounded.


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  • The PAST SUBJUNCTIVE is used after wish when one wants to say that s/he would like things to be different from what they really are at the moment of his/her wish.

  • I wish I had the money to buy that car.


Don t forget

Don’t forget!

  • I WISH YOU WOULD (NOT) … can be used as PLEASE.

  • I wish you wouldn’t raise such a racket. I need to study.


Wish subjunctive verbs

WISH/SUBJUNCTIVE/VERBS

STUDY

  • I suggest that he ___________ for the test. (study)

  • Heaven _________ us! (help)

  • If it rained, the picnic ___________________ . (postpone)

  • If she _________ me, I ________________her. But she didn’t. (ask) (help)

  • I wish I _____ time to study harder, but I don’t. (have)

  • When Tony found out his wife had been cheating on him, he wished he ____________ a bachelor again. (be)

HELP

WOULD BE POSTPONED

HAD ASKED

WOULD HAVE HELPED

HAD

WERE


Verbs followed by gerund infinitive

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND/INFINITIVE

  • There are certain verbs in English that can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive without any change in meaning.

  • TO BEGIN

  • TO START

  • TO CONTINUE

  • TO HATE

  • TO LOVE

  • TO PREFER


Verbs that there s a change in meaning

STOP

He stopped smoking.

means

He doesn’t smoke anymore.

STOP

He stopped to smoke.

means

He stopped what she was doing in order to smoke.

VERBS THAT THERE’S A CHANGE IN MEANING.


To remember

I can’t remember giving you the keys.

means

I can’t remember the fact that I gave you the keys.

I remember to call him.

means

I don’t forget to call him.

TO REMEMBER


To regret

I regret to inform you that your car exploded.

means

I’m feeling sorry and informing at the same time.

Sue regrets having lent him money.

means

Sue lent him some money earlier and now, she is sorry that she did it because he never paid her back.

TO REGRET


To try

You should try to practice for the Olympics harder.

means

Make an effort

You should try taking this pill. You will feel better.

means

to experiment

TO TRY


Verbs followed by gerund

VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUND

  • To avoid

  • To detest

  • To dislike

  • To adore

  • To appreciate

  • To enjoy

  • To finish

  • To suggest


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SMOKING

FEEDING (=fact)

  • Cathy took the doctor’s advice and stopped __________ . (smoke)

  • You mean you forgot __________________ the cat this morning? The poor animal must be starving by now. (feed)

  • Try __________________to bed earlier, Mom. You’ll feel better. (go)

  • You’ve been trying _________________ the faucet for two hours, Kevin. Don’t you think we should call a plumber now? (fix)

  • Frank adores ______ pictures. (take)

  • Students should avoid ________Portuguese in class. (speak)

GOING (=experiment)

TO FIX (=make an effort)

TAKING

SPEAKING


So that such a an that

SO … THAT SUCH (A/AN) … THAT

  • SO … THAT is used with ADJECTIVE or an ADVERB.

  • He is so CLEVER that he always gets good grades.

  • Frank types so QUICKLY that it takes him just a few minutes to copy a long text.


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  • SUCH (A/AN) … THAT is used with a noun or with an adjective preceding a noun.

  • J.J. is such a RASCAL that everybody hates him.

  • Aunt Ethel is such an ANNOYING PERSON that we never invite her to our parties.


Let s do it

Let’s do it.

SO

THAT

  • Let’s talk to Frank. He’s _______ intelligent _______ he will certainly find a solution to our problem.

  • Mike is ________ a nice person __________ Phoebe fell in love with him.

  • I am _______ tired ________ I am going to sleep as soon as I get home.

  • This exam is ______ difficult ________ many people study hard before trying it.

  • is _______ a funny program ______ I never

    miss an episode.

SUCH

THAT

SO

THAT

SO

THAT

THAT

SUCH


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