Who wants to be a super millionaire
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Who Wants to be a Super Millionaire?. IGNEOUS ROCKS. IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS. Cooled and crystallized from molten rock. Can occur at surface of the Earth or at depth. MAGMA (Hot, liquid magma) Molten rock within the Earth. May be completely liquid.

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Who Wants to be a Super Millionaire?

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Who wants to be a super millionaire

Who Wants to be a

Super Millionaire?


Who wants to be a super millionaire

IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

Cooled and crystallized from molten rock.

Can occur at surface of the Earth or at depth.

MAGMA (Hot, liquid magma)

Molten rock within the Earth.

May be completely liquid.

Commonly contains liquid, solid

crystals and dissolved gases.

LAVA

Molten rock that flows above ground.


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Kilauea, HI

16-25 February, 2003


Who wants to be a super millionaire

MELTING ROCKS AND CRYSTALLIZING MAGMA

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

When rocks melt, bonds between ions are broken.

Crystalline solid no longer exists.

Hot liquid contains still solid fragments.

Minerals melt at different temperatures.

Melting causes changes in magma composition.

Cooling of hot liquid allows crystallization of minerals.

Bonds are re-established.

Crystalline structure grows until edges touch

adjacent crystals.

Minerals crystallize at different temperatures.


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IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

Classification of Igneous Rocks uses

TEXTURE and COMPOSITION.

TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

TEXTURE is the appearance of the size, shape and

arrangement of the mineral grains in the rock.

TEXTURE is directly influenced by the cooling rate

of the magma or lava.

Slow cooling yields large crystals.

Rapid cooling yields small or no crystals.


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TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

TEXTURE is directly related to cooling rate.

Slow cooling produces large crystals.

Slow cooling take 100’s to 1000’s of years.

Large crystals are > 2mm.

Called PHANERITIC or COARSE-GRAINED.

Occurs when igneous rocks

cool beneath Earth’s

surface.


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TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

PHANERITIC TEXTURE

Because the Earth is a poor conductor of heat, rocks

with phaneritic texture cool very slowly.

Slow cooling takes place within the Earth.

Rocks with phaneritic texture are called

INTRUSIVE or PLUTONIC rocks.


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TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

Some igneous rocks form at low temperatures from

magmas that have high water content.

Very large crystals are produced in this process.

These rocks are called PEGMATITES.

PEGMATITES usually

contain quartz,

feldspar and micas.

Beryl and tourmaline are

also common.

Found in Rumford, Bethel

and Popham Beach

in Maine.


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TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

Magmas or lavas that cool quickly allow little time for

crystals to grow.

Produces small crystals < 2mm.

Crystals < 2mm are called APHANITIC OR FINE-

GRAINED.

Occurs when igneous rocks cool at or near Earth’s

surface.


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TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

APHANITIC TEXTURE

Because air and water are good conductors of heat,

rocks with aphanitic texture cool very quickly.

Rapid cooling takes place at or near the Earth’s

surface.

Rocks with aphanitic texture are called

EXTRUSIVE or VOLCANIC rocks.


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TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

GLASSY TEXTURE

When lava cools extremely fast, i.e., instantaneously,

crystals have no time to form.

Usually occurs when lava enters atmosphere or water.

Ions are frozen in place randomly.

Texture is termed GLASSY.


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TEXTURE OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

PORPHYRITIC TEXTURE

Texture reflects two stage cooling history of the rock.

Minerals begin to form slowly beneath Earth’s surface,

resulting in large crystals (plutonic stage).

Then eruption occurs allowing remaining magma or

lava to cool quickly resulting in smaller crystals

(volcanic stage).

PHENOCRYST

GROUNDMASS


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IGNEOUS COMPOSITIONS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

Magmas typically contain O, Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na,

K and S.

Influences composition of igneous rocks.

TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND WATER

CONTENT also determine magma composition.


Who wants to be a super millionaire

IGNEOUS COMPOSITIONS

IGNEOUS PROCESSES AND IGNEOUS ROCKS

Gases are a major constituent in lava and magmas.

Include :

Water vapor (H2O)

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Silicate minerals are a major constituent.

Classification of igneous rocks also based

on SILICA CONTENT of the rock.


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