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Accountability in Air Quality Management - Assessing the Effectiveness of Local and National Policies Benjamin Barratt, King’s College London. Accountability in air quality management - assessing the effectiveness of local and national policies. Ben Barratt, King’s College London

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Accountability in Air Quality Management -

Assessing the Effectiveness of Local and National Policies

Benjamin Barratt, King’s College London


Accountability in air quality management assessing the effectiveness of local and national policies

Accountability in air qualitymanagement - assessing the effectiveness of local and national policies

Ben Barratt, King’s College London

A Clearer Future Conference, 22nd September 2010


Contents
Contents

  • What is Accountability?

  • Why do we need Accountability?

  • How can we carry out an Accountability Study?

  • Some examples

  • Conclusions and advice


What is accountability

IMPROVED ACTION

Regulatory or other action

Emissions

Compliance, effectiveness

Atmospheric transport, chemical transformation and deposition

Ambient air quality

Human time-activity patterns in relation to indoor and outdoor air quality. Uptake, deposition clearance, retention in body

Exposure / dose

Susceptibility factors; physiologic mechanisms of damage and repair

Human health response

What is Accountability?

Regulatory or other action

Emissions

Ambient air quality

Exposure / dose

Human health response

From HEI, 2003


Why do we need accountability
Why do we need accountability?

  • Atmospheric science is complicated and difficult to predict.

  • People are even more complicated and difficult to predict!

  • Very little proof of how effective our AQM actions are.

    • Was the policy successful in reducing concentrations?

    • What area was affected?

    • Were there unexpected effects?

    • Was it financially/socially/(politically) worthwhile?

    • How could it be improved/evolved?

  • Forming a body of evidence




How do we carry out a study
How do we carry out a study?

  • A) Emissions modelling

    • Most commonly used method, often in planning stage

    • Use modelling to influence the policy – scenario testing

    • Depends on good emissions inventories

  • B) Pollutant monitoring

    • More difficult but essential until body of evidence established

    • What areas are likely to experience the greatest effect?

    • What are the target pollutants?

    • Is there sufficient traffic and pollutant monitoring in place in these locations or is more required?

    • Monitoring should commence well in advance of implementation.


How do we carry out a study1
How do we carry out a study?

  • C) Health effects assessment

    • Very difficult! Only for large or very targeted schemes

    • Exposure / Dose response can be implied from other data or directly monitored using sample population.

    • Health Response can be assessed using hospital records, GP databases, questionnaires

    • Established risk factors for certain pollutants, i.e., estimated change in number of deaths per 10 µg m-3 change in the pollutant concentration.


Example accountability studies
Example accountability studies

  • National policy - Irish coal bans

  • Localised policy/intervention – waste transfer site

  • TiO2 coatings – a solution to all our NO2 problems?

  • Pre-planned study – London Low Emission Zone


Dublin coal bans black smoke
Dublin coal bans (black smoke)

Source: Dockery et al, 2010 (in preparation)


Interventions at waste transfer site pm 10
Interventions at waste transfer site (PM10)

Source: Barratt & Fuller, 2008


Interventions at waste transfer site pm 101
Interventions at waste transfer site (PM10)

Source: Barratt & Fuller, 2008


Camden tio 2 paint trial
Camden TiO2 Paint trial

  • A oxidising additive the reacts with NO and NO2, therefore seen as a ‘silver bullet’ for NO2 problems.

  • Many flawed studies but very little robust evidence in the real world.

  • Three year study within a courtyard in central London


Camden tio 2 paint trial1
Camden TiO2 Paint trial

  • Continuous measurements of NO, NO2 and NOX at 0.1 m & 1.5 m from the painted wall.

  • ‘Paint effect’ quantified by comparing concentrations recorded by each analyser and other surrounding analysers prior to and following the intervention.

  • Three phases:

    • Co-location (both inlets at 1.5 m): 7 weeks.

    • Pre-intervention (inlets separated, no paint): 16 months.

    • Post intervention (inlets separated, paint): 9 months.


Camden tio 2 paint trial2
Camden TiO2 Paint trial

  • Diurnal variation in controlled NOX (NW sector only)

  • Change occurs in August, not at intervention in April


Camden tio 2 paint trial3
Camden TiO2 Paint trial

  • Will NOX concentrations increase again?...


London lez full accountability study
London LEZ full accountability study

  • Modelled scenarios

  • Monitoring network – pollution and traffic

  • Compliance data

  • Pollutant analysis, including particle metrics

  • Toxicity

  • Health response studies



Lez study monitoring network
LEZ study – monitoring network

Source: Barratt et al, 2009


London lez study compliance rates
London LEZ study - compliance rates

Source: Barratt et al, 2009


Lez study reduction in cblk
LEZ study - Reduction in CBLK

Source: Barratt et al, 2009


London lez study vehicle flows
London LEZ study - vehicle flows

Cars & Taxis

HGVs

Source: Barratt et al, 2009


London lez study pm 2 5 cblk
London LEZ study – PM2.5& CBLK

Weekdays

Weekends

Source: Barratt et al, 2009


London lez study exhale
London LEZ study – EXHALE

  • Sampling of year 4 children in ten East London primary schools.

  • Annual 2008 – 2012

  • 150 children

  • Spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, questionnaire, buccal swab, urine, induced sputum, saliva.


Accountability in climate change
Accountability in climate change

  • Urban CO2 monitoring network for London.

  • Assessing the effectiveness of vehicle-related CO2 reduction initiatives.


Some practical advice
Some practical advice

  • LAQM process is now at the action stage – take accountability seriously or we may all bark up the wrong tree!

  • Planning is required, but a lot can be achieved with a well planned study.

  • Use targeted monitoring, including traffic data for traffic schemes, active well in advance of implementation.

  • Accessible analysis methods are being developed to assist you – e.g., openair (openair-project.org), CUSUM.

  • A body of evidence for LAQM options will follow.



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