american political parties
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
American Political Parties

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

American Political Parties - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 334 Views
  • Uploaded on

American Political Parties. What are Political Parties ?. A political party is a group of voters, activists, candidates, and office holders who identify with a party label. Parties recruit and run candidates for public office under the party label.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'American Political Parties' - navid


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
what are political parties
What are Political Parties?
  • A political party is a group of voters, activists, candidates, and office holders who identify with a party label.
  • Parties recruit and run candidates for public office under the party label.
  • Parties try to organize and coordinate the activities of government officials under the party name.
the role of political parties in a democracy
The Role of Political Parties in a Democracy
  • Many political scientists believe that parties are essential to democracy.
  • The political party is seen by some as the main instrument of popular sovereignty and majority rule.
  • Parties provide a way for the people to keep elected officials responsive and responsible through competitive elections.
parties and majority rule
Parties and Majority Rule
  • Parties’ mobilizing activities contribute to democracy by educating people about politics.
  • Elections create an incentive for parties to include as many voters as possible under their “umbrella”, with winning support from a majority being the goal of each party.
  • Parties try to broaden their appeal by running candidates from many ethnic, racial, and religious groups.
the two party system
The Two-Party System
  • Most nations have either one-party systems or multiparty systems.
  • Most Western democracies have multiparty systems.
  • But two parties have dominated the political scene in the United States since 1836.
why only 2 american parties
Why Only 2 American Parties?
  • Winner-take-all electoral system:
    • Legislative seats are awarded only to first place finishers in each “district”.
  • Institutional rules:
    • Congress and State legislatures provide no power base for minor parties.
the evolution of american party democracy
The Evolution of American Party Democracy
  • Hamilton and Jefferson, as heads of the Federalist and Anti-Federalist groups respectively, are often considered \'fathers\' of the modern party system.
  • By 1800, this country had a party system with two major parties that has remained relatively stable ever since.
democrats and republicans
Democrats and Republicans
  • From the presidential elections of 1860 to the present, the same two major parties have contested elections in the United States:
        • Democrats
        • Republicans.
republicans
Republicans
  • 1854 Anti-slave activists met in Ripon, WI
  • 1854 “Republicans” first met in Jackson., MI. The name emphasizes a connection to the Democratic-Republican Party.
  • 1856 John Fremont was first presidential candidate of a national Republican Party.
  • 1860 Lincoln is the first Republican elected President as Republicans replace Whig Party as one of the 2 major national parties.
democrats
Democrats
  • 1792 Thomas Jefferson organized opposition to Federalists
  • 1798 Officially named the Democratic-Republican Party
  • 1824 4-way split among D-R
  • 1832 Reunification of Democrats under Andrew Jackson presidency. “Jacksonian Democrats”
  • 1844 Officially re-named the Democratic Party
  • 1848 Democratic National Committee established.
what the party symbols mean
What the party symbols mean.
  • To A Republican
    • Elephant: dignified, strong, intelligent
    • Donkey: stubborn, silly, ridiculous
  • To A Democrat
    • Elephant: bungling, stupid, pompous
    • Donkey: humble, smart, courageous, lovable
history of party competition
History of Party Competition
  • 1860 -1876 -- Republican Dominance
  • 1876 -1896 -- “Competitive” Republican
  • 1896 -1932 -- Republican “Dominance”
  • 1932 -1952 -- Democratic Dominance
  • 1952 -1968 -- “Competitive” Democrat
  • 1970 - 2000 -- Neither party dominant
  • 2004 - Start of Republican domination?
  • 2006 – Looking toward a competitive 2008?
realignments and critical elections
Realignments and Critical Elections
  • Each period begins with a “critical election”, a landslide by one party.
    • 1860, 1896, 1932, ???
  • Each critical election leads to permanent “realignment” of voter preferences
  • Cycle of dominance - about 40 years
    • 1860 to 1896
    • 1896 to 1932
    • 1932 to 1968
modern politics wither the realignment
Modern Politics –Wither the Realignment?
  • We’ve actually been waiting for the realignment to follow 1932 for about 30 years.
  • We live in a “de-aligned” world. Party is not as important a cue to voting as it once was.
the roles of american parties
The Roles of American Parties
  • The two party system has been used to resolve political and social conflicts.
    • Mobilizing Support and Gathering Power
    • A Force for Stability
    • Unity, Linkage, Accountability
    • The Electioneering Function
    • Party as a Voting and Issue Cue
    • Policy Formulation and Promotion
3 views of the political party
3 Views of the “Political Party”
  • Party as Organization
  • Party in Government
  • Party in the Electorate
the party in government
The Party in Government
  • The Congressional Party
  • The Presidential Party
  • The Parties and the Judiciary
  • The Parties in State & Local Government
the party in the electorate
The Party-In-The-Electorate
  • The party-in-the-electorate is the mass of potential voters who identifywith specific party.
  • American voters often identify with a specific party, but rarely formally belong to it.
slide25
Historical Parties

American Independence

Progressives

Bull Moose

Free Soil

Anti-Masons

Socialist

Contemporary Parties

Libertarian Party

Green Party

Reform Party

American Nazi

Socialist Labor

Socialist Worker

American Constitutional

third parties their impact on american politics
Third Parties: Their Impact on American Politics
  • Rarely win elections. Rarely last long.
  • But, they bring new groups and people into politics who often stay involved.
  • Two-party system discourages extreme views.
third parties electoral impact
Third Parties: Electoral Impact
  • Minor parties are not a threat to the two major parties today (although they may influence who wins).
  • Only eight third parties have won any electoral votes in a presidential contest.
  • The third parties that have had some “success” (aside from Ralph Nader in 2000) include…
impact of 3 rd parties on issues
Impact of 3rd Parties on Issues
  • Prohibition (Prohibition Party)
  • Women’s Right to Vote (Prohibition & Socialist Parties)
  • Immigration Restrictions (Populist Party)
  • Child Labor (Socialist Party)
  • 40 Hour Work Week (Populist & Socialist Parties)
  • Progressive Income Tax (Populist & Socialist Parties)
  • Social Security (Socialist Party)
  • Crime Control (American Independence Party)
the republicans as a 3 rd party
The Republicans as a 3rd Party
  • Of course, despite modest electoral successes and policy impact via “adoption”, most third parties aspire to share or hold power.
  • Some make it. The Republicans did not start as a major party but became the beneficiary of the 1850’s battle over slavery between Whig and Democratic Parties.
q how do our parties enhance democracy and government effectiveness
Q: How do our parties enhance democracy and government effectiveness?

Four Answers:

  • The responsible party model
  • The retrospective voting model
  • The median voter model
  • Overcoming the separation of powers
proposals to improve the parties
Proposals to improve the parties
  • Make the party elements stronger
  • Strengthen ties between elements of the parties
  • More power to the party centers; more hierarchical
  • Make better ties to the public; party sentiments strengthened in the public.
critics reactions to party reform
Parties are already too strong; increases public discontent.

Proposals to strengthen parties are by those who want big govt.

Critics: Reactions to Party Reform
ad