Tutorial 1. Biology background for the course. Genome sizes and number of genes. Orthologs vs. Paralogs. Orthologs – Genes in different genomes with a common origin Paralogs – Genes in the same genome with a common origin.
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for the course
Orthologs – Genes in different genomes with a common origin
Paralogs – Genes in the same genome with a common origin
Only exons form the final mRNA that the protein will be translated from.
Exons << Introns
~100,000 proteins and only ~20,000 genes.
How can that be?
Gene != Protein
The different mRNA molecules created by alternative splicing are called transcripts or isoforms.
Prokaryotes usually have smaller and more compact genomes. Eukaryotes “can afford” to have alternative splicing.
Biological molecules with a variety of functions:
Each AA has traits that are reflected in the protein’s folding and function
Neutral, Non polar
G A S T C V L I M P F Y W D E N Q H K R
A G T C
The DNA sequence to which a protein binds is called a binding site.
Regulation can both activate or repress expression.
Gene transcription start site
Repressor binding sites
E. Davidson, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, 2009
Enjoy the course!