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First Aid Merit Badge. Lesson One. Lesson One – Objectives Fundamentals of First Aid. Define the meaning of First Aid. Explain how to use the 911 system. Explain the first concern when giving first aid. Explain when to move and when not to move an injured person.

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Lesson One – Objectives

Fundamentals of First Aid

Define the meaning of First Aid.

Explain how to use the 911 system.

Explain the first concern when giving first aid.

Explain when to move and when not to move an injured person.

List the four steps of victim assessment.

What is Triage?


Fundamentals of First Aid

1. What is the purpose of first aid:

  • First Aid is care given to an injured person to stabilize and keep him / her safe until he / she can receive professional medical attention.

Fundamentals of First Aid


A man has been hit by a car and thrown into the street. He is wearing shorts, and blood is flowing, but not spurting, from his leg. What looks like a bone is sticking out of his leg.

What are the two major concerns when giving first aid to this victim?


Fundamentals of First Aid


First, safety of the rescuer from traffic and the safety of the of the victim.

Second, unless the victim is in a life-threatening situation, he should not be moved.


Fundamentals of First Aid

2. List the Two Major Concerns When Giving First Aid:

  • The first rule of first aid and the primary concern is:
  • The second concern is, unless the victim is in a life-threatening situation, he or she should:


Not Be Moved


Giving First Aid


R is forResponsiveness

Is the victim conscious?

Touch their shoulder, ask if they are alright.

Ask if they need help.

If they say no, then proceed no further

If yes, or no response, then proceed to A


Giving First Aid


A is for Activate EMS or 911


How to Use the 911 System

4. What are the four things you need to remember when making a 911 call?

  • Your name
  • The emergency
  • The location of the emergency
  • Condition of the victim

Stay on the line with the operator until help arrives.


How To Use the 911 System

When should EMS / 911 be called?

  • Check the victim for responsiveness. If they do not respond or if they tell you that they need help, then contact EMS.

When To Move An Injured Person

P is for Position

Only re-position the victim if the victim is in further danger in their present location.

And / or there does not seem to be spinal injury and additional care requires moving them.


Explain when an injured person should and should not be moved?

  • If there are suspected spinal injuries, do not move the victim (except when the victim is in a life threatening situation).

Seek immediate medical attention.


Four Steps ofVictim Assessment

Use the mnemonic“ABCH”

  • A is for airway

-check to see if the airway is blocked.

Use your finger to sweep the mouth to remove any seen object. If this fails, then perform the Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrusts. We will learn these techniques in later lessons.


Four Steps ofVictim Assessment

  • B is for breathing

Look, listen and feelby watching the chest and placing your cheek a few inches above the mouth of the victim to sense any movement of air. If the victim is not breathing, they may need their head repositioned.

If they are still not breathing they need rescue breathing, do not give unless you are trained, instead, find an adult.


Four Steps ofVictim Assessment

  • C is for circulation

If there is not a pulse, then this person needs CPR.

The best place to check for a pulse is the carotid artery along the side of the neck along the windpipe.

If you are not trained in CPR, then find someone who is.


Four Steps ofVictim Assessment

  • H is for Hemorrhaging

If the victim is bleeding, then provide the necessary care.

If not, then begin a secondary assessment.


What is Triage?

Process of prioritizing patients based on the severity of their condition so as to treat as many as possible when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately.


Lesson One Review

First aid is a first-response activity, nothing more.

It’s sole goal is to maintain the injured person until they get professional help.

First priority – Safety for all!

Blood from a cut or torn vein will flow, a cut artery will spurt.


Lesson One

True-False Questions

T F 1. Checking the victim, calling for help, and giving care are three steps in treating someone who has been seriously hurt or ill.

T F 2. It is ok to move someone who is seriously hurt to make them feel better.

T F 3. Knowing first aid could save a life, and applying first aid should be accompanied with prayer.


Lesson One

True-False Questions

T F 4. The groove to the side of the neck (carotid artery) is a good place to check the pulse.

T F 5. Calling for help may be the most important thing that you do to help the victim.

T F 6. First aid is the temporary care that you give until professional help arrives.


Lesson Two – Objectives

Choking, AED, Shock and Weather Related Ailments

  • Review Victim Assessment from lesson 1.
  • Explain and Demonstrate the Heimlich maneuver and abdominal thrusts.
  • What is an AED and what is it used for?
  • Explain the treatment for shock and hot and cold weather related injuries or ailments.


  • Safety is the primary concern.
  • R = Responsiveness (Is the victim conscious?)
  • A = Activate EMS or 911
  • P = Position (no spinal injury, position according to injury)
  • A = Airway (is it blocked? Check head position)


  • B = Breathing (is the victim breathing? Check!)
  • C = Circulation (Is there a pulse? Check!)
  • H = Hemorrhaging (Is the victim bleeding?)
  • Perform secondary survey. Examine the victim for other injuries and wait for medical attention to arrive.

Heimlich Maneuver

  • Used only when the victim is conscious and is unable to breath or cough.
  • Victim coughing, encourage to continue.
  • If the victim goes unconscious, use Abdominal Thrusts

Heimlich Maneuver

  • Stand behind victim.
  • Wrap arms around victim’s waist and not around the ribs.
  • Make a fist and place the thumb side of your fist just slightly above the navel.
  • Grab your fist with your other hand.

Heimlich Maneuver

  • Press into the victim’s stomach with five quick upward thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause in between.
  • After every five thrusts, recheck the victim. Repeat until the object has been dislodged of until the victim loses consciousness.

Time To Practice!


Abdominal Thrusts

  • Place victim on his or her back.
  • Straddle the victim by sitting on their thighs.
  • Place the heel of one hand just slightly above their navel. Your fingers should be angled slightly upward, pointed toward the victim’s head.

Abdominal Thrusts

  • Grasp your hand by placing your other hand on top and lacing your fingers into the first hand.
  • Press inward and upward with five quick thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause in between.

Abdominal Thrusts

  • After every five thrusts, recheck the victim. Repeat until the object has been dislodged or until you are relieved by another person or an EMT.
  • Perform finger sweep after each set of five thrusts.

Time To Practice!


What is an AED and what is it used for?

A portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses the potentially life threatening cardiac arrhythmias of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia in a patient,and is able to treat them through defibrillation, the application of electrical therapy which stops the arrhythmia, allowing the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm.

AEDs are designed to be simple to use for the layman, and the use of AEDs is taught in many first aid, first responder and basic life support (BLS) level CPR classes.


Shock - Treatment

  • Preserve body heat by placing a blanket or cover over the victim. Provide insulation, or move the victim, if possible, to a warmer environment.

Shock - Treatment

Allergic Reaction

First Question: Is shock the result of an allergic reaction?

If the shock is the result of an allergic reaction, then follow victim\'s instructions for treating allergy and monitor the "ABCH’s" until medical attention arrives.


Shock - Treatment

  • Spinal injury – do not move the victim.
  • If result of a head injury or if victim has difficulty breathing, elevate head and shoulders by placing a pillow or blanket under head.
  • If the victim is unconscious or vomiting, then turn the victim on their left side so the stomach is on the left side of the body.

Shock - Treatment

  • If no, elevate legs eight to twelve inches off the ground.
  • If less then two hours from medical care, then do not give fluids (except to those who are conscious and are severely burned).
  • If no, give small and periodic amounts of water (only if conscious).
  • Wait for medical attention to arrive.

Weather Related Emergencies

  • Weather related emergencies include:
  • Hyperthermia: Heat related, body unable to cool itself
    • Heat Exhaustion: Skin cold & clammy, person alert
    • Heatstroke: Skin hot, altered state of awareness
  • Hypothermia: Cold related, body unable to warm itself
  • Frostbite: Freezing of the extremities (fingers & toes)
  • Frostnip: First stage of freezing outer layers of skin

Weather Related Emergencies

Treatment for Hyperthermia

“The body is unable to itself.”


  • Move person into a cool place; remove any excess clothing; cool victim with either water, fanning, or cool packs under the armpits or groin; wait for medical attention, in the case of heatstroke.

Weather Related Emergencies

Treatment for Hypothermia

“The core body temperature drops below degrees.”



Weather Related Emergencies

Treatment for Hypothermia

  • Move the victim out of the cold; handle the victim carefully; replace wet clothes with dry clothes.
  • You may need to be forceful verbally to get the individual to comply;
  • Insulate from the cold with layered clothing and/or an insulated sleeping bag.

Lesson 2 Review Questions

True-False Questions

T F 7. Hyperthermia occurs when the body loses the ability to cool itself and overheats.

T F 8. When you have frostbite, rub the hands together slowly to warm them up.

T F 9. Hypothermia occurs when the body loses its ability to keep itself warm.

T F 10. Shock may occur with any injury, illness, or trauma.


Lesson 2 Review Questions

True-False Questions

T F 11. Itching eyes is a sign of hypothermia.

T F 12. Clammy skin is a sign of heat exhaustion.

13. Describe the treatment needed for the following scenario: You have come to an accident scene, and the victim is sitting on the curb. He or she seems a little upset, is shivering, and there is some discoloration of the skin. How do you treat this person?

Check “RAP ABCH”. Cover with blanket. Ask if it is an allergic reaction. Seek medical attention.


Lesson Three – Objectives

  • Explain and demonstrate first aid for a cut.
  • Explain how to treat a blister.
  • Explain and demonstrate first aid for a puncture wound.
  • Explain and demonstrate first aid for arterial bleeding of an arm or leg.
  • Explain and demonstrate how to stop bleeding.
  • Dangers of a tourniquet.

Blister Treatment

  • Remove the object or clothing that is causing the blister.
  • Wash with warm water and soap.
  • Use a sterile needle to pop the blister at its base and drain.
  • Place a donut-shaped piece of mole foam around it to keep it from further irritation.

Blister Treatment

  • Treating a Blister
    • Remove footwear then
    • The best place to pop the blister is
    • tear off the roof of the blister.
    • The best way to prevent blisters is to wear fitted footwear.

wash the blister with warm water and soap.

at the base.

Do not



Puncture Wound Treatment

  • Larger wounds - never remove barriers (may cause wound to bleed again).
  • Wash gently with outward strokes to move dirt and bacteria away from wound.
  • Use a stream of water to flush it out. Dry carefully, apply antibacterial ointment (for small wounds) and sterile bandage.

Puncture Wound Treatment

  • Treating punctures:
    • If the object has already been removed, treat the wound based on the type of that has occurred.
    • The object acts as a and should not be
    • The most important thing is to keep the object from






Minor Cut Treatment

  • Wash hands with soap and water.
  • Apply direct pressure to the cut until it stops bleeding.
  • Gently wash with soap and water and rinse it for a few minutes.
  • Pat dry and add a bandage with small dab of ointment on it.

Arterial Bleeding

  • Check RAP ABCH first.
  • Try to stop the bleeding using direct pressure.
  • If the bleeding stops, treat for shock.
  • If not, then: Elevate that part of the body above the victim\'s heart and continue with direct pressure.

Arterial Bleeding

  • If the bleeding stops, treat for shock. If not, then: Locate a pressure point and continue to apply direct pressure.
  • The pressure points are located in the upper arm and where the leg joins the hip.

Arterial Bleeding

  • If the bleeding stops, treat for shock. If not, then: Seek immediate medical assistance.
  • Use a tourniquet as last resort.

Dangers of a Tourniquet

Emergency tourniquets are used in emergency bleeding control to prevent severe blood loss from limb trauma. Emergency tourniquets are a last resort, for all blood flow below the application of an emergency tourniquet is stopped, and can subsequently kill the tissue, leading to eventual loss of the limb below application.


Preventing Infection

  • How to prevent infection.
    • The best way to prevent infection is to the wound.


b.Protect the wound with a clean sterile dressing.


Lesson 3 Review Questions

True or False Questions

T F 14. A foot blister occurs because of the constant rubbing of clothing of equipment against the skin.

T F 15. Most wounds can be card for by applying direct pressure, cleaning, applying medicine, and applying a bandage.

T F 16. A tourniquet is a good and safe way to control bleeding at a camp-out.

T F 17. Arterial bleeding is considered a simple wound.


Lesson 3 Review Questions

True or False Questions

T F 18. A deep puncture wound is not serious and does not need to be treated by a doctor.

T F 19. Applying ointment is not a method to control bleeding from a large wound.

Let’s Practice


Lesson Four – Objectives

  • Explain and demonstrate how to respond to poisonings.
  • Explain and demonstrate first aid for insect bites.
  • Explain how to remove a splinter from a finger.
  • Explain how to treat poisonings.


  • Poisons can enter the body one of four ways:
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Injection
  • Absorption

Poisoning Treatment

  • Absorbed, like Poison ivy,
  • Immediately wash the area with soap and water.
  • Then take a cool bath and apply calamine lotion.
  • If it spreads and painful, then seek medical attention.

Poisoning Treatment

  • Poisonous injections: i.e. Snakebites,
  • Identify the snake, if possible.
  • Then clean the bite with soap and water and keep bite below heart level.
  • Seek medical attention.

Poisoning Treatment

  • If the poison is inhaled or swallowed;
  • Check "ABCH" and treat for shock.
  • Seek medical attention and call the Poison Control Center
  • 1-800-222-1222

Insect Bite or Sting Treatment

  • If possible, try to catch the spider or insect without risk to you.
  • Check to see if the stinger is in the skin.
  • If not, Clean the area, apply ice to reduce swelling.

Insect Bite or Sting Treatment

  • If stinger is found, gently scrape the stinger out of the wound using a plastic card or fingernail, pulling away from the wound to minimize amount of toxin released into the body.
  • Do not squeeze stinger. Treat wound as a minor cut.

Insect Bite or Sting Treatment

  • Next, check to see if the victim is allergic to the bite.
  • Look for signs of shock and swelling.
  • If no, then seek medical attention or an adult for assistance.
  • If yes, check “ABCH,” treat for shock, and immediately seek medical attention.

Splinters and Ticks - Treatment

  • Use tweezers to carefully remove.
  • If splinter breaks, use sterilized tweezers.
  • Remove remainder of splinter, and treat wound as a minor cut.

Splinters and Ticks - Treatment

  • Treating a splinter.
    • Remove as much of the splinter as
    • If the splinter breaks off, sterilize the
    • cut into the skin.



Do not


Splinters and Ticks - Treatment

  • Treating a tick.
    • Do not yank the tick out, but pull it out.
    • After removing the tick, the area and watch for
    • Contact medical attention if swelling, or persists.







Lesson 4 Review Questions

True or False Questions

T F 20. To remove a tick, just yank it off of your body.

T F 21. Call the Poison Control Center if poison is swallowed or inhaled.

T F 22. For a snakebite, slice the wound, suck out the venom, and spit it out.

T F 23. To remove the oils that rub onto the body from poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac, you should change your clothes and wash thoroughly.


Lesson 4 Review Questions

True or False Questions

T F 24. Tweezers are needed to remove a splinter.

T F 25. A plastic card could be used to remove a stinger from an insect bite.


Lesson Five – Objectives

  • Demonstrate and explain first aid for simple burns.
  • Assemble a personal first aid kit.
  • Learn where a first aid kit should be stored.

Degree of Burn

First Degree Burn




Second Degree Burn

Third Degree Burn


Burns – Degrees of Burns

  • First-degree burn
    • Only the top layer of skin is
    • The skin is only mildly
    • There is only a little
    • These burns usually within a week.






First-Degree Burn

Redness (Erythema)

First Degree Burn

Damage to the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing pain, redness, and swelling.





Burns – Degrees of Burns

  • Second-degree burn
    • layers of skin are burned.
    • The skin has a appearance.
    • There is greater swelling, and there are
    • These burns take up to three weeks to heal and should be attended by a


spotty or blotchy




Second-Degree Burn

Second Degree Burn

Damage to both outer skin and underlying tissue layers (epidermis and dermis), causing pain, redness, swelling, and blistering.

Blisters (Bulla)


Burns – Degrees of Burns

  • Third-degree burn
    • layers of skin are burned.
    • There is discoloration.
    • Some skin may be
    • These burns can be




life threatening.


Third-Degree Burn

Full thickness burn with tissue damage

Third Degree Burn

Damage extends deeper into tissues (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis) causing extensive tissue destruction. The skin may feel numb.


Heat Burn Treatment

  • Go through “RAP ABCH” first, then ask if burn was caused by heat.
  • Determine degree and amount of burn.
  • If it is a third-degree burn or large second-degree burn, use the “ABCH”, then treat for shock.
  • Do not attempt to pull off the clothing because skin may come with it.

Heat Burn Treatment

  • Cut it off if attached to the skin.
  • Apply a sterile dressing and elevate.
  • Seek immediate medical attention.
  • Burn is first-degree or small second-degree, apply cold water/compress until pain stops.
  • If you must use ice, provide a barrier.
  • Do not apply an ointment.

Chemical Burn Treatment

  • Determine if burn was caused by a dry chemical.
  • If so, brush it off, remove clothing, wash area fifteen to twenty minutes.
  • If not caused by dry chemical, remove clothing and jewelry, wash area for fifteen to twenty minutes.
  • Seek medical attention in both cases.

Electrical Burn Treatment

  • If burn is not chemical, then it’s an electrical burn.
  • Is victim in contact with electrical source, are you at risk.
  • If yes, ask adult to turn off power.
  • May entail calling 911 to have then call appropriate person.
  • Treatment same as heat burn.

Electrical Burn Treatment

  • In all cases, monitor wound for signs of infection.
  • Large wounds – seek medical attention to reduce risk of infection.
  • Serious burn, monitor for signs of shock.

First Aid Kit

  • Container – To keep all first aid items in one common container.
  • Gauze Pads -To cover wounds and prevent infection.
  • Roll Bandage -To stabilize strains and sprains and cover wounds.
  • Triangular Bandage -To cover wounds and prevent infection .

First Aid Kit

  • Bandages -To stop minor bleeding and prevent infection.
  • Adhesive Tape -To secure bandages to wounds.
  • Antibacterial Ointment -To prevent infection on small cuts.

First Aid Kit

  • Calamine Lotion -To prevent itching.
  • Soap -To clean minor wounds and cuts and to prevent infection.
  • Latex Gloves -To protect the rescuer from infection and blood pathogens.

First Aid Kit

  • Bandage Scissors -To cut gauze and bandages.
  • Tweezers -To pull splinters.
  • Moleskin -To protect blisters and prevent infection.

First Aid Kit

Where should a first aid kit be placed?

  • It should be placed in a visible location near the center of the activities. Everyone should be aware of its location.

Lesson 5 Review Questions

True or False Questions

T F 26. A first-degree burn should be cooled using ice, not water.

T F 27. When helping a victim with a chemical burn, quickly rinse the burn for a few seconds.

T F 28. You should remove clothing from a burn, even if it is sticking, so you can treat it more effectively.

T F 29. When approaching a victim or electrical burns, you should make sure the power is off.


Lesson 5 Review Questions

True or False Questions

T F 30. Duck tape is an important item in a first aid kit.

T F 31. Large second-degree burns are just as dangerous as third-degree burns.


Lesson Six – Objectives

  • What is Cardiopulmonary resuscitation ?
  • The ABC’s of Cardiopulmonary resuscitation .
  • Explain the steps in Cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone\'s breathing or heartbeat has stopped.

Ideally, CPR involves two elements: chest compressions combined with mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing.

Call 911

Airway & Breathing

Hand Placement



Before you begin

  • Assess the situation before starting CPR:
  • Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  • If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, "Are you OK?"
  • If the person doesn\'t respond and two people are available, one should call 911 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone, call 911 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). In this special case, begin CPR for one minute and then call 911.
  • If an AED is immediately available, deliver one shock if advised by the device, then begin CPR.

Remember the ABC’s

Think ABC — Airway, Breathing and Circulation.

Move quickly through Airway and Breathing to begin chest compressions to restore Circulation.


AIRWAY: Clear the airway

  • Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
  • Kneel next to the person\'s neck and shoulders.
  • Open the person\'s airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person\'s forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.
  • Check for normal breathing, taking no more than five or 10 seconds: Look for chest motion, listen for breath sounds, and feel for the person\'s breath on your cheek and ear. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. If the person isn\'t breathing normally and you are trained in CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven\'t been trained in emergency procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing and proceed directly to chest compressions to restore circulation.

BREATHING: Breathe for the person

  • Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can\'t be opened.
  • With the airway open (using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver) pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person\'s mouth with yours, making a seal.
  • Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise, give the second breath. If the chest doesn\'t rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.
  • Begin chest compressions to restore circulation.

CIRCULATION: Restore blood circulation with chest compressions

  • Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person\'s chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
  • Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard and push fast — give two compressions per second, or about 120 compressions per minute.
  • After 30 compressions, tilt the head back and lift the chin up to open the airway. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Pinch the nose shut and breathe into the mouth for one second. If the chest rises, give a second rescue breath. If the chest doesn\'t rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second rescue breath. That\'s one cycle. If someone else is available, ask that person to give two breaths after you do 30 compressions.
  • If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automatic external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply it and follow the prompts. The American Heart Association recommends administering one shock, then resuming CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you\'re not trained to use an AED, a 911 operator may be able to guide you in its use. Trained staff at many public places are also able to provide and use an AED. Use pediatric pads, if available, for children ages 1 to 8. Do not use an AED for infants younger than age 1.
  • Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over.