The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr
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The Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR or POVMR). Master Problem Lists Writing SOAP’s Master Plan. The purpose of a POMR. Teaching & Learning Emphasize a systematic, analytic approach Help you learn “patterns” Review (learn) Integrate – problems & causes

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The Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR or POVMR)

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The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

The Problem Oriented Medical Record(POMR or POVMR)

Master Problem Lists

Writing SOAP’s

Master Plan


The purpose of a pomr

The purpose of a POMR

  • Teaching & Learning

    • Emphasize a systematic, analytic approach

    • Help you learn “patterns”

    • Review (learn)

    • Integrate – problems & causes

    • Maintain focus on the patient & his/her problems

    • Student evaluation – e.g. in your clinical blocks

  • Communication among members of the medical team(optimize the quality of care and minimize the potential for mistakes)

  • Legal Record(sign your entries!)


Please remember

Please remember

  • An “academic” SOAP is different from how you will SOAP cases in private practice! (some different goals)

  • There is NO ONE RIGHT WAY to write a SOAP or SOAP a case.

  • There will be different expectations from different clinicians and different clinical services. (SA Referral is our model)

  • It takes PRACTICE! (and time). Part of our goal is to give you early exposure and some opportunity to practice.


Dr lawrence weed 1968

Dr. Lawrence Weed: 1968

  • Patient focused

  • Problem oriented

“Medical Records that Guide and Teach”


Pomr part of an attempt to address the most common problems in diagnosis case management

Premature closure= the clinician stops generating new hypotheses before the correct diagnosis has been added to the list of DfDx’s

The most common interpretive error= overinterpretation or misinterpretation of findings in light of suspected disease

POMR = part of an attempt to address the most common problems in diagnosis & case management:

  • Inadequate hypothesis generation

  • Inattention or misinterpretation of findings

    • history, PE, laboratory data, etc.


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

Pattern recognition.

A function of experience and knowledge base.

Why are diagnosis USUALLY correct?

Common diseases occur commonly.

Duh !

  • The Challenges:

  • The uncommon presentation of the common disease

  • The common presentation of the uncommon disease

  • The disease (common or not) that you personally have not seen before or at least not recognized before.


Povmr

POVMR


Master problem list

Master Problem List

A PROBLEM is anything that potentially threatens the health of the animal (or herd) and may require medical attention (at least eventually).

MPL is always kept at the front of the record – “front and center”

The MPL is updated DAILY(or at each submission during a DC).


Updating revising mpl

Updating & Revising MPL

Disposition of problems

  • NEW problems are added(e.g. new discoveries & new developments)

  • Some problems are resolved

  • Problems are re-defined

    • Combined with other problems

    • Upgraded to another problem (defined at higher level of understanding)

  • Problems can be inactivated


Example

Upgrade to #7

13 year-old intact male German Shorthaired Pointer

Example:

  • Vomiting

  • Hematemesis

  • Inappetance

  • Lethargy

  • Pale mucous membranes

  • Tachypnea

  • Anemia – non-regenerative

  • Azotemia

  • Isosthenuria

  • Hypoproteinemia

Use slide show function & click to see updating MPL (next slide)


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

Upgrade to #13

Upgrade to #13

resolved 9/27

Upgrade to #11 and/or 12

Upgrade to #11

Upgrade to #12

Upgrade to #12

Upgrade to #11

Upgrade to #11

Upgrade to #7

Upgrade to #13

Upgrade to #13

  • Vomiting

  • Hematemesis

  • Inappetance

  • Lethargy

  • Pale mucous membranes

  • Tachypnea

  • Anemia – non-regenerative

  • Azotemia

  • Isosthenuria

  • Hypoproteinemia

  • Gastric ulceration- endoscopy

  • Interstitial nephritis & fibrosis (end stage kidney)– renal biopsy

  • Chronic renal failure(final Diagnosis)


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

Client Complaint

ACTIVE

PROBLEMS

on MPL

START

  • TREATMENT:

  • symptomatic

  • supportive

  • presumptive

END

Diagnosis

Specific Rx


S o a p

S.O.A.P.

  • Subjective:

    attitude, appetite, activity, improving?, Unchanged? - include client’s observations

  • Objective:

    Summarize the measurable clinical data (fever?, laboratory?, rads?, etc.)


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

In the VTH, S.O. are often combined:

Problem 1. Pale mucous membranes

SO: oral mucous membranes are pale on physical examination

Problem 2. Icterus

SO: Yellow tint to oral mucous membranes and sclera are indicative of icterus (accumulation of bilirubin in tissues).

Problem 3. Tachypnea

SO: A respiratory rate of 44 is higher than expected of a normal, inactive dog.


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

Problem 4. Diarrhea

SO:Diarrhea in this animal is chronic and appears to be progressing (getting worse). The high volume & low frequency suggests that the diarrhea is small intestinal in origin, as does the absence of fresh blood, mucus, and tenesmus, which are the cardinal signs of large bowel diarrhea in small animals.  The chronic small bowel diarrhea accompanied by weight loss is most suggestive of a small intestinal malassimilation syndrome, possibly with protein loss into the feces.

Problem 5. Hepatomegaly

SO:Physical examination revealed hepatomegaly characterized by extension of the liver beyond the ribs and by rounded edges. The hepatomegaly appears to be diffuse, but further assessment (imaging) would be required to confirm.


S o a p continued

“Rule-Outs”

S.O.A.P.– continued

  • Assessment: = Analysis of the problem

  • 3 components for each Assessment:

    • [A] General pathophysiologic mechanisms for the problem. (a bit of review)

    • [B]Pathophysiologic mechanisms likely for THIS CASE.

    • [C] Differential Diagnoses (DfDx's) for THIS problem.


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

  • Considerations:

  • First: think & write about the problem by itself

    • Before you think about other problems

    • Before you try to think about specific DfDx’s

  • Then, think and write about the problem in relation to other problems on the MPL and other information.

e.g. Hypoproteinemia

The most common interpretive error = overinterpretation or misinterpretation of findings in light of suspected disease


Critical thinking integration

CRITICAL THINKING & INTEGRATION

  • Can you localize the disease? (e.g. to an organ system?)

  • Is the signalment important or useful? species, breed, age, sex

  • Duration & Course?

  • Are other animals affected?

  • Was there previous treatment / response?

  • Has your understanding of the problems changed ?- notably changed in light of new data

  • How can you pull the case or problems together ?

REMEMBER: The record should capture your THOUGHT PROCESSES


Dfdx s for the problem

DfDx’s for the Problem:

  • Localization

  • Process (e.g. DAMNIT)

  • Specific Diseases

One goal is to avoid:

Premature closure= the clinician stops generating new hypotheses before the correct diagnosis has been added to the list of DfDx’s. As a result, inappropriate Rx is initiated


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

S.O.A.P.– continued

Initial PLAN – to address THIS problem.

  • The plan should help rule in / rule out your primary DfDx's, or treat the patient.

  • The initial plan can include:

    • specific diagnostic tests

    • specific treatments

    • doing nothing (wait & see)

    • client communication plans (including questions)

  • The proposed plan is often stated as a sequence of plans or possible courses of actions.


Soap example edema

SOAP Example:Edema

  • General mechanisms

    • Increased hydrostatic pressure

      • Heart failure, venous obstruction, overhydration

    • Decreased plasma oncotic pressure: d/t hypoalbuminemia

      •  albumin production d/t liver disease

      •  intake (malnutrition or protein malabsorption)

      •  protein loss

        • Renal, GI, skin (wounds & burns), body cavities

    • Lymphatic obstruction or hypertension (not common)

      • Neoplasia, surgical or traumatic injury, lymphangitis, congenital

    • Vasculitis


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

  • This case:

    • No evidence of GI disease

    • No evidence of heart disease or vasculitis

    • No obvious evidence of lymphatic disease

    • Good appetite

    • Accompanied by weight loss

    • Possible polyuria & polydipsia according to owners

  • DfDx’s:

    • Protein-losing nephropathy (e.g. glomeronephritis or renal amyloidosis)

    • Loss in GI, but without producing other enteric signs such as diarrhea (e.g. lymphangiectasia, chronic parasitism, intestinal neoplasia)

    • Chronic Liver disease – would have to be severe (>80% loss) to produce hypoalbuminemia & edema


Remember soaps are written daily

IMPORTANT

Remember – SOAPs are written daily

EACH DAY(or at each submission during a DC)

  • You will SOAP all NEW problems

    AND

  • Re-SOAP all ACTIVE problems on your MPL

In particular, your SOAP’s of pre-existing problems should address your updated analysis/interpretation of the problem in light of new information and any changes in the case.


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

Also …..

  • Make sure everyone in your DC group is sharing his/her SOAP’s and “teaching” the others what you’ve learned.

  • Otherwise, it’s like everyone has a PIECE of the puzzle, but maybe no one has enough of the puzzle to pull it together in a cohesive way.


Do not

Do NOT

  • Just copy and paste your SOAP from one day to the next or from one problem to another

    • “unchanged from yesterday, page 12”

    • “See Problem #9”


P initial plan to address this problem

P: Initial Plan to address this problem

WHY? - Provide a rationale!

  • Panel:

    • R/O hypoalbuminemia

    • assess renal function via BUN & creatinine

    • access liver enzymes as evidence of liver disease

  • Urinalysis:

    • R/O proteinuria

    • in conjunction with BUN-creatinine, assess renal function

  • Fecal floatation:

    • R/O intestinal parasites causing protein or blood losss

Then(sequencing)

  • Depending on results of minimal data base, consider future cardiac consultation to rule out congestive heart failure (chest rads, ECG, echocardiography, stress testing)

  • Consider bile acids in future, as most sensitive measure of liver function

  • Talk to owner about a more appropriate diet


Master plan

At the end of the day’s record, enter a:

Master Plan

  • Panel

  • Urinalysis

  • Fecal Floatation

  • CBC

This is a “To Do List”

= what you really want to do NOW.


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

Questions ?

Look at the examples you were provided


Please remember1

Please remember

  • An “academic” SOAP is different from how you will SOAP cases in private practice! (some different goals)

  • There is NO ONE RIGHT WAY to write a SOAP or SOAP a case.

  • There will be different expectations from different clinicians and different clinical services. (SA Referral is our model)

  • It takes PRACTICE! (and time). Part of our goal is to give you early exposure and some opportunity to practice.


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

MISCONCEPTION CHECK

A couple of review questions - CLICKERS


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

A 7-year-old MC Irish Setter presents for its annual exam and vaccinations. The owners report no problems. During the PE, however, you palpate a large abdominal mass – which you suspect is spleen. Radiographs reveal a diffusely enlarged spleen, but no other abnormalities. Considering your findings and what you know about prevalence, etc, which of the following is the best DfDx?

  • Splenic hemangiosarcoma

  • Splenic hematoma

  • Lymphoma

  • Nodular splenic hyperplasia

  • Diffuse splenic hyperplasia


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

You’ve been called to deal with a suspected outbreak of Anaplasmosis in a herd of Hereford cattle near St. Maries, Idaho. Anaplasma marginale is a tick transmitted bacteria that produces a cell-associated bacteremia. It replicates within and destroys erythrocytes – thereby causing life threatening anemia. You necropsy 2 dead animals where you find icterus and also massively enlarged spleens. What is your explanation for the splenic lesions ?

  • Enzootic leukosis (lymphoma)

  • Splenic hematoma

  • Splenic hyperplasia

  • Visceral mastocytosis


The problem oriented medical record pomr or povmr

A 1.5 year old DSH cat presents with a sudden onset of severe dyspnea. PE reveals decreased compressibility of the thorax and muffled heart sounds. Chest films reveals pleural fluid. Ultrasound confirms that the fluid is also obscurring a large mass in the anterior thorax. Given the findings, signalment, etc, What is the most likely diagnosis?

  • Thymoma

  • Lymphoma

  • Thymic Branchial Cyst

  • Hemangiosarcoma


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