Language meaning
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 66

Language & Meaning PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 134 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Language & Meaning. Humans’ accommodations for language Some characteristics of language Some aspects of meaning. We’re mammals. Distinctive traits include Lactation Mammalian “isolation cry” Neoteny Middle ear Larynx. We have special larynxes. Functions Controls airflow Phonates.

Download Presentation

Language & Meaning

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Language & Meaning

Humans’ accommodations for language

Some characteristics of language

Some aspects of meaning

English 306A; Harris


We’re mammals

  • Distinctive traits include

    • Lactation

    • Mammalian “isolation cry”

    • Neoteny

    • Middle ear

    • Larynx

English 306A; Harris


We have special larynxes

  • Functions

    • Controls airflow

    • Phonates

English 306A; Harris


We have special larynxes

  • Functions

    • Controls airflow

    • Phonates(Glottis)

English 306A; Harris


Glottis

  • Glottis

    • Air flow

    • Phonation

English 306A; Harris


Glottis

  • Glottis

    • Air flow

    • Phonation

English 306A; Harris


Larynx, tongue, Heimlich

  • Apes, australopithecus, babies

    • Tongue rooted in mouth

    • Larynx behind mouth

    • Can breathe and swallow at the same time

  • Adult homo erecti +

    • Tongue rooted in throat

    • Larynx in throat

    • Cannot breathe and swallow at the same time

English 306A; Harris


Lower tongue root + larynx =

  • Consonants and vowels

    (big flappy lips help too)

  • Syllables

  • Patterns of rhythm and modulation

English 306A; Harris


Lower tongue root + larynx =

Speech

English 306A; Harris


Oh, and one more thing

English 306A; Harris


Oh, and one more thing

A brain

Motor cortex

Auditory cortex

Language areas

English 306A; Harris


Language properties

  • Mutability

  • Parity

  • Universality

  • Tacitness

  • Displacement

  • Productivity (creativity)

English 306A; Harris


Mutability

Languages change.

 cool neat groovy far-out radical cool

English 306A; Harris


Parity

All languages are equal.

English 306A; Harris


Universality

  • All grammars share some basic properties.

    • Words

      • Nouns

      • Verbs

    • Sentences

      • Assertions

      • Questions

    • Semantic roles

      • Agents

      • Patients

      • Locations

English 306A; Harris


Tacitness

A great deal of grammatical knowledge is tacit knowledge.

[p] vs [ph] vs [p¬]

English 306A; Harris


Displacement

  • Messages can refer to things remote in time and space, or both, from the site of the communication.

English 306A; Harris


Elements + combinatorics

  • At every level

    • Sounds combine into syllables and morphemes

    • Morphemes combine into words

    • Words combine into phrases and sentences

    • Sentences combine into turns or paragraphs

      • Turns combine into conversations

      • Paragraphs combine into texts

English 306A; Harris


Elements + combinatorics =

  • Productivity (creativity)

    • New vocables

    • New words

    • New sentences

    • New meanings

English 306A; Harris


Elements + combinatorics =

Language

English 306A; Harris


Everything has meaning.

Everything is a sign.

English 306A; Harris


Types of signs

  • Indexical

    A mode defined by relationship of necessity (especially cause and effect). Prototypically, think fever.

  • Iconic

    A mode defined by relationship of resemblance. Prototypically, think picture.

  • Symbolic

    A mode defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning. Prototypically, think word.

English 306A; Harris


Dimensions of signs

  • Indexicality

    A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of necessity (esp. cause and effect).

  • Iconicity

    A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of resemblance.

  • Symbolicity

    A semiotic tendency defined by relationship of arbitrariness, convention, and learning.

English 306A; Harris


Bow-wow-pooh-pooh-yo-he-ho theories

  • Index-to-icon-to-symbol migration theories

  • Pooh-pooh, Yo-he-ho

    Index-to-icon-to-symbol

  • Bow-wow

    Index-to-icon-to-symbol

English 306A; Harris


Metaphor and metonymy

  • Indirect representation

    Something (called the vehicle) carries the primary signification for something else (tenor) that ordinarily holds that signification.

  • Metaphor is iconic

    The vehicle/tenor relationship is an asserted resemblance: the tenor is said to be like the vehicle in some way.

  • Metonymy is indexical

    The vehicle/tenor relationship is (not exactly necessary but) drawn from the same habitat: the tenor is related to the vehicle in some way.

English 306A; Harris


Metonymy, metaphor

to go tyson

to go ballistic

COMPARATIVE

REPRESENTATIVE

English 306A; Harris


Metonymy—The principle of set membership

  • One element of a set or a relationship (the vehicle) singled out to represent other element(s) (the tenor)

    • Hollywood loves westerns.

    • Toronto collapses!

    • Calgary wins in OT!

    • All hands on deck.

    • Thirty head of cattle.

English 306A; Harris


Metaphor—The principle of comparison

  • One element (the vehicle) represents another element (the tenor), to which it is unrelated.

    • My love is red, red rose.

    • Homer is a pig.

    • Toronto is toast.

    • The table leg is broken.

    • The orthopedic wing is closed.

    • Fire kills thousands every year.(Personification)

English 306A; Harris


English 306A; Harris


“Pussy”

English 306A; Harris


“Pussy”

English 306A; Harris


“Pussy”

English 306A; Harris


“Pussy”

English 306A; Harris


“Pussy”

  • Metaphor

    • Tenor = vagina

    • Vehicle = cat

    • Attributes

      • Warm

      • Furry

English 306A; Harris


“Pussy!” Stage 1

!

  • Metonymy (synecdoche)

    • Tenor = woman

    • Vehicle = pussy-as-vagina

  • The ultimate devaluing of a (category of a) person: to a small anatomical component.

English 306A; Harris


“Pussy!” Stage 2

  • Metaphor

    • Tenor = the insult target

    • Vehicle = woman (not vagina)

    • Attributes

      • Weak

      • Soft

      • Quitter

    • Means ‘Opposite of a man’, but in a wholly evaluative way.

=

English 306A; Harris


“Pussy”Metaphor Metonymy Metaphor

  • Indexicality, Iconicity

    • a relatively mundane example of ordinary language

    • not a fancy literary or rhetorical device

    • these processes, and figuration generally, are pervasive

English 306A; Harris


We now return you to regular programming

F

English 306A; Harris


Metonymy, metaphor

to go tyson

to go ballistic

Representation

Comparison

The picture is metaphoric; the expression isn’t

Similarity

Association

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual metaphors

  • TIME IS MONEYspend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, …

  • ARGUMENT IS WARhe attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, …

  • ANGER IS HEATyou make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual metaphors

  • TIME IS MONEYspend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, …

  • ARGUMENT IS WARhe attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, …

  • ANGER IS HEATyou make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual metaphors

  • TIME IS MONEYspend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, …

  • ARGUMENT IS WARhe attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, …

  • ANGER IS HEATyou make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual metaphors

  • TIME IS MONEYspend a day, invest three months, bank your overtime, cost me a weekend, …

  • ARGUMENT IS WARhe attacked my point, I defended it well, she shot me down, I blew her out of the water, …

  • ANGER IS HEATyou make my blood boil, I was steamed, he has a fiery temper, she's a hothead, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual Metonymy

  • PRODUCER FOR PRODUCTI only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, …

  • CONTAINER FOR CONTAINEDthat’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, …

  • PERSON FOR INSTRUMENTI’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, …

  • PLACE FOR PEOPLEBC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, …

  • PLACE FOR INSTITUTIONOttawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual Metonymy

  • PRODUCER FOR PRODUCTI only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, …

  • CONTAINER FOR CONTAINEDthat’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, …

  • PERSON FOR INSTRUMENTI’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, …

  • PLACE FOR PEOPLEBC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, …

  • PLACE FOR INSTITUTIONOttawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual Metonymy

  • PRODUCER FOR PRODUCTI only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, …

  • CONTAINER FOR CONTAINEDthat’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, …

  • PERSON FOR INSTRUMENTI’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, …

  • PLACE FOR PEOPLEBC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, …

  • PLACE FOR INSTITUTIONOttawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual Metonymy

  • PRODUCER FOR PRODUCTI only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, …

  • CONTAINER FOR CONTAINEDthat’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, …

  • PERSON FOR INSTRUMENTI’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, …

  • PLACE FOR PEOPLEBC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, …

  • PLACE FOR INSTITUTIONOttawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual Metonymy

  • PRODUCER FOR PRODUCTI only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, …

  • CONTAINER FOR CONTAINEDthat’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, …

  • PERSON FOR INSTRUMENTI’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, …

  • PLACE FOR PEOPLEBC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, …

  • PLACE FOR INSTITUTIONOttawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Park changed the speed limits, …

English 306A; Harris


Conceptual Metonymy

  • PRODUCER FOR PRODUCTI only read Dr. Seuss, she wore Calvin Klein last night, the Wolf Blass has too much tannin, …

  • CONTAINER FOR CONTAINEDthat’s a tasty dish, the needle was the death of her, he drank the whole bottle, …

  • PERSON FOR INSTRUMENTI’m parked out back, she’s the lead guitar, he’s the drill press, …

  • PLACE FOR PEOPLEBC voted conservative, Alberta likes cowboy movies, Thunder Bay is surprisingly liberal, …

  • PLACE FOR INSTITUTIONOttawa raised our taxes again, Queen’s Parkchanged the speed limits, …

English 306A; Harris


Indexicality is metonymic

  • Defined by association (rather than similarity; often on necessity)

    There must be a certain physical, temporal, or metaphorical relation between referential objects for the words/expressions to function

English 306A; Harris


Indexicality

  • Egocentricity

    Speaker-oriented

    • Deixis (pointing words)

  • Anthropocentrism

    Human-oriented

    • Inherent orientation (human-body orientation projected to objects)

English 306A; Harris


IndexicalityDeictics

  • Gk. deiktos ≈ “to show”

    • Pointing words

  • Langauge which orks by ‘gesturing outward’ from speaker, the EGO, to other objects

English 306A; Harris


Indexical orientation — Deictic centreLexical egocentricity

  • Pronouns

    • EGO = 1st person (I, me, …)

    • EGO+others = 1st person plural (we, us, …)

    • Hearer-of-EGO = 2nd person (you, your, …)

    • Hearer-of-EGO+others = 2nd person plural (you, your, …)

    • Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of-EGO = 3rd person (he, she, it, …)

    • Not-EGO-and-not-hearer-of-EGO+others = 3rd person plural (they, them, …)

English 306A; Harris


Indexical orientation — Deictic centreLexical egocentricity

  • Proximals

    • Speaking location

      • Where-EGO-is: here, near, …

      • Where-EGO-is-not: there, far, …

    • Speaking time

      • When-EGO-is: now, today, …

      • When-EGO-is-not: then, tomorrow, …

    • Relative location to speaker

      • Close-to-EGO: this, these, …

      • Not-close-to-EGO: that, those, ..

English 306A; Harris


Indexical orientation — Deictic centreExpressive egocentricity

  • The speaker (or, in a rhetorical extention, the hearer) as the (default) reference point for everything else.

    • “The squirrel is behind the tree.”

    • “Mount Pinotubo is on the left”

English 306A; Harris


IndexicalityAnthropocentricity

  • Gk. anthropos ≈ “man”

  • (hu)man-centred

  • Inherent orientation: human orientation projected onto artefacts and entities)

    • front, back

    • left, right

    • before, behind

English 306A; Harris


Deictic (egocentric) vs. Inherent (anthropocentric) Orientation

English 306A; Harris


Iconicity is metaphoric

  • Defined by similarity (rather than association)

  • Sequential order

    “Don’t drink and drive”

  • Distance

    Immediacy of action

  • Quantity

    Reduplication

English 306A; Harris


IconicityPrinciple of sequential order

  • Unless marked, the order of words (by default) mirrors the order of events.

    • He kicked sand in my face and I got mad.

    • I got mad and he kicked sand in my face.

English 306A; Harris


IconicityPrinciple of distance

  • Linguistic distance (proximity) tends to mirror conceptual distance.

    • She squeezed me.

    • She gave me a squeeze.

    • She gave a squeeze to me.

English 306A; Harris


IconicityPrinciple of quantity

  • Length of utterance correlates with (speaker’s perception of) quantity of concept.

    • Dinosaurs lived a l o o o n g time ago.

    • Dinosaurs lived a long, long, long, … time ago.

    • Lawyerese.

    • Political speeches.

English 306A; Harris


Iconicity — Principle of quantityReduplication

  • Japanese

    hito 'person'

    hitobito ’group of people'

    kami 'god'

    kamigami ’group of gods'

  • Mandarin

    xiao 'small'

    xiaoxiao 'very small'

    gaoxing 'happy'

    gaogaoxingxing 'very happy'

English 306A; Harris


Iconicity — Principle of quantityReduplication

English 306A; Harris


Iconicity — Principle of quantityReduplication

Download the SIL IPA fonts to see these transcriptions in PPS files

English 306A; Harris


Iconicity — Principle of quantityConceptual Reduplication

  • Trinidad and Tobago

    [jEswij]

    • emphatic confirmation, agreement; interjective intensifier

    • yes-we?

    • yes-whee?

    • yes-oui!

English 306A; Harris


Any questions?

  • Human accommodations for language

  • Features of language

  • Metaphoricity, metonymy

  • Symbolicity (arbitrariness, convention, learning)

  • Indexicality (relation of association)

    • Egocentricity (deixis)

    • Anthropocentricity (inherent orientation)

  • Iconicity (relation of resemblance)

    • Sequential order

    • Distance

    • Quantity

English 306A; Harris


  • Login