Civil War and Social Memory. The Dexileus Relief (394)*. Keywords The Thirty, The Ten, Thrasybulus, Phyle , Eleusis, Men of the City, Men of Piraeus, the Amnesty, Lysias 12, Eratosthenes, Polemarchus , Theramenes.
The Dexileus Relief (394)*
The Thirty, The Ten, Thrasybulus, Phyle, Eleusis, Men of the City, Men of Piraeus, the Amnesty, Lysias 12, Eratosthenes, Polemarchus, Theramenes
In 394, a cenotaph was set up in honor of Dexileus, who had died in a battle. Although Athenians rarely furnished dates of birth and death on burial monuments, Dexileus’were to show that he had been too young to serve in the cavalry of the Thirty.
a. Democracy restored in Athens
b. Amnesty for all crimes except murder and attempted murder by one’s own hands; all included in the amnesty except the Thirty, the Ten, and the Eleven unless they undergo a euthyna.
c. Eleusis granted political autonomy
2. Democrats conquer Eleusis (401), which is reintegrated into Athens, and the amnesty is extended to the remaining oligarchic supporters.
Democrats believed oligarchic conspiracies cause Athens to lose the Battle of Aegospotami
and surrender to Sparta.
Lysias collapses the defeat, surrender,
and overthrow of democracy
into one event by blaming Theramenes and the Thirty for all three (see Lys. 12.36-40, 62-79)
Lysias 12.94: “Realize that you [i.e., the Men of the City] live as citizens with men [i.e., the Men of the Piraeus] who are nowthe best (“aristoi”).
Lys. 12.80: “Do not make plans against the Thirty in their absence only to let go of them when you have them. And do not protect yourselves less zealously than does Fortune, who has surrendered them?
Lys 12.84-85: I think that the man would have to be very bold who comes here to defend himself…Either he thinks so little of you or has so much trust in others…Their supporters come here not to help them but because they believe that they will have much impunity for their own actions and can do whatever they want in the future…