Exam next week
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Exam next week. Covers everything about all sensory modalities except hearing This includes: vision balance /touch/taste/smell / proprioception /theroception. Binocular Disparity. points nearer than horopter have crossed disparity points farther than horopter have uncrossed disparity.

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Exam next week

Exam next week

  • Covers everything about all sensory modalities except hearing

  • This includes:

    vision

    balance/touch/taste/smell/proprioception/theroception


Binocular disparity

Binocular Disparity

  • points nearer than horopter have crossed disparity

  • points farther than horopter have uncrossed disparity

The Horopter


Exam next week

Autostereograms

Any repeating objects that have a spacing different from the background will have either crossed or uncrossed disparity when the convergence angle of the eyes is set to a point in front of or behind the screen

What would you see?


Magic eye stereograms

“Magic Eye” Stereograms

  • Usually viewed with uncrossed convergence

  • Imagine gazing farther than the surface (let your eyes “relax”)

  • Now try to notice objects or forms in the blurriness

  • As you become aware of shapes, try to focus (accommodate) the plane of the image without converging your eyes


Autostereograms

Autostereograms


Autostereograms1

Autostereograms


Autostereograms2

Autostereograms


Exam next week

COLOR VISION


Exam next week

Color is an illusion

  • What color is this box?


Wavelength and color

Wavelength and Color

  • Recall that light is electromagnetic radiation


Wavelength and color1

Wavelength and Color

  • Recall that light is electromagnetic radiation

  • Light waves have a frequency/wavelength


Wavelength and color2

Wavelength and Color

  • Recall that light is electromagnetic radiation

  • Light waves have a frequency/wavelength

  • Frequency/wavelength is the physical property that corresponds (loosely) to the perception called color


Color vision

Color Vision

Wavelength and Color

  • Different wavelengths correspond roughly to the “colors” of the spectrum


Color vision1

Color Vision

Wavelength and Color

  • White light is a mixture of wavelengths

    • prisms decompose white light into assorted wavelengths


Color vision2

Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

What are the primary colors?


Color vision3

Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

RedGreenBlue


Color vision4

Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

What makes them primary?


Color vision5

Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

  • Every color (hue) can be created by blending light of the three primary colors in differing proportions


Color vision6

Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

  • Every color (hue) can be created by blending light of the three primary colors in differing proportions

  • Led to prediction that there must be three (and only three) distinct color receptor types


Color vision7

Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Four absorption peaks in retina: 3 cone types plus rods

Absorption/Cone response


Color vision8

Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Blue

“Green”

“Red”


Color vision9

Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

“Green”

Green

“Red”


Color vision10

Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

“Green”

“Red”

Red


Color vision11

Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Equal Parts Red and Green =

“Green”

Yellow

“Red”


Color vision12

Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Equal Parts Red and Green =

“Green”

Yellow

“Red”


Color vision13

Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Equal Parts Red and Green =

“Green”

Yellow

“Red”


Color vision14

Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Trichromatic theory of color vision:

    • brain interprets the relative amounts of signaling from each of these cone types


Color vision15

Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Trichromatic theory of color vision:

    • brain interprets the relative amounts of signaling from each of these cone types

  • This means that some colors can be matched by a pair of wavelengths

    • metamers: colors that have no definite single wavelength (e.g. yellow)


Color vision16

Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Trichromatic theory of color vision:

    • brain interprets the relative amounts of signaling from each of these cone types

  • This means that some colors can be matched by a pair of wavelengths

    • metamers: colors that have no definite single wavelength (e.g. yellow)

  • This also means that any color can be matched by mixing (not more than) three different wavelengths


Exam next week

Color Mixing

  • What color can only exist as a metamer (an additive mixture of wavelengths)? In other words, what color cannot be made with a single wavelength?


Exam next week

Color Mixing

  • What color can only exist as a metamer (an additive mixture of wavelengths)? In other words, what color cannot be made with a single wavelength?

Magenta

Think about why!


Exam next week

Color Mixing

  • Both yellow and blue pigments reflect a bit of green

Amount of reflection

green

yellow

red

blue

wavelength


Exam next week

Color Mixing

  • Subtractive mixing is commonly used in color printers


Exam next week

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Problem with Trichromatic Theory:


Exam next week

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Problem with Trichromatic Theory:

YELLOW


Exam next week

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Problem with Trichromatic Theory:

    • most people categorize colors into four primaries: red, yellow, green, and blue

    • some colors simply cannot be perceived as gradations of each other

      • redish green !?

      • blueish yellow !?

    • It is as if these colors are opposites


Exam next week

Theories of Color Vision: Opponent-Process Theory

  • Opponent-Process Theory

    • color is determined by outputs of two different continuously variable channels:

      • red - green opponent channel

      • blue - yellow opponent channel


Exam next week

Theories of Color Vision: Opponent-Process Theory

  • Opponent-Process Theory

    • Red opposes Green

    • (Red + Green) opposes Blue

  • Opponent-Process Theory explains color afterimages


Exam next week

Color is an illusion

  • Everything you’ve learned so far is wrong.


Exam next week

Color is an illusion

  • Everything you’ve learned so far is wrong.

  • Well, not really wrong, just far from complete.


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