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Exam next week. Covers everything about all sensory modalities except hearing This includes: vision balance /touch/taste/smell / proprioception /theroception. Binocular Disparity. points nearer than horopter have crossed disparity points farther than horopter have uncrossed disparity.

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Exam next week
Exam next week

  • Covers everything about all sensory modalities except hearing

  • This includes:

    vision

    balance/touch/taste/smell/ proprioception/theroception


Binocular disparity
Binocular Disparity

  • points nearer than horopter have crossed disparity

  • points farther than horopter have uncrossed disparity

The Horopter


Autostereograms

Any repeating objects that have a spacing different from the background will have either crossed or uncrossed disparity when the convergence angle of the eyes is set to a point in front of or behind the screen

What would you see?


Magic eye stereograms
“Magic Eye” Stereograms

  • Usually viewed with uncrossed convergence

  • Imagine gazing farther than the surface (let your eyes “relax”)

  • Now try to notice objects or forms in the blurriness

  • As you become aware of shapes, try to focus (accommodate) the plane of the image without converging your eyes






Color is an illusion

  • What color is this box?


Wavelength and color
Wavelength and Color

  • Recall that light is electromagnetic radiation


Wavelength and color1
Wavelength and Color

  • Recall that light is electromagnetic radiation

  • Light waves have a frequency/wavelength


Wavelength and color2
Wavelength and Color

  • Recall that light is electromagnetic radiation

  • Light waves have a frequency/wavelength

  • Frequency/wavelength is the physical property that corresponds (loosely) to the perception called color


Color vision
Color Vision

Wavelength and Color

  • Different wavelengths correspond roughly to the “colors” of the spectrum


Color vision1
Color Vision

Wavelength and Color

  • White light is a mixture of wavelengths

    • prisms decompose white light into assorted wavelengths


Color vision2
Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

What are the primary colors?


Color vision3
Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

RedGreenBlue


Color vision4
Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

What makes them primary?


Color vision5
Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

  • Every color (hue) can be created by blending light of the three primary colors in differing proportions


Color vision6
Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Primary colors

  • Every color (hue) can be created by blending light of the three primary colors in differing proportions

  • Led to prediction that there must be three (and only three) distinct color receptor types


Color vision7
Color Vision

Perceiving Color

  • Four absorption peaks in retina: 3 cone types plus rods

Absorption/Cone response


Color vision8
Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Blue

“Green”

“Red”


Color vision9
Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

“Green”

Green

“Red”


Color vision10
Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

“Green”

“Red”

Red


Color vision11
Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Equal Parts Red and Green =

“Green”

Yellow

“Red”


Color vision12
Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Equal Parts Red and Green =

“Green”

Yellow

“Red”


Color vision13
Color Vision

Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision

Signal to Brain

Wavelength Input

Cone

“Blue”

Equal Parts Red and Green =

“Green”

Yellow

“Red”


Color vision14
Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Trichromatic theory of color vision:

    • brain interprets the relative amounts of signaling from each of these cone types


Color vision15
Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Trichromatic theory of color vision:

    • brain interprets the relative amounts of signaling from each of these cone types

  • This means that some colors can be matched by a pair of wavelengths

    • metamers: colors that have no definite single wavelength (e.g. yellow)


Color vision16
Color Vision

Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Trichromatic theory of color vision:

    • brain interprets the relative amounts of signaling from each of these cone types

  • This means that some colors can be matched by a pair of wavelengths

    • metamers: colors that have no definite single wavelength (e.g. yellow)

  • This also means that any color can be matched by mixing (not more than) three different wavelengths


Color Mixing

  • What color can only exist as a metamer (an additive mixture of wavelengths)? In other words, what color cannot be made with a single wavelength?


Color Mixing

  • What color can only exist as a metamer (an additive mixture of wavelengths)? In other words, what color cannot be made with a single wavelength?

Magenta

Think about why!


Color Mixing

  • Both yellow and blue pigments reflect a bit of green

Amount of reflection

green

yellow

red

blue

wavelength


Color Mixing

  • Subtractive mixing is commonly used in color printers


Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Problem with Trichromatic Theory:


Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Problem with Trichromatic Theory:

YELLOW


Theories of Color Vision: Trichromatic Theory

  • Problem with Trichromatic Theory:

    • most people categorize colors into four primaries: red, yellow, green, and blue

    • some colors simply cannot be perceived as gradations of each other

      • redish green !?

      • blueish yellow !?

    • It is as if these colors are opposites


Theories of Color Vision: Opponent-Process Theory

  • Opponent-Process Theory

    • color is determined by outputs of two different continuously variable channels:

      • red - green opponent channel

      • blue - yellow opponent channel


Theories of Color Vision: Opponent-Process Theory

  • Opponent-Process Theory

    • Red opposes Green

    • (Red + Green) opposes Blue

  • Opponent-Process Theory explains color afterimages


Color is an illusion

  • Everything you’ve learned so far is wrong.


Color is an illusion

  • Everything you’ve learned so far is wrong.

  • Well, not really wrong, just far from complete.


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