Chapter2 lipids its function
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Chapter2 Lipids & Its Function. Professor, Dr. Jin Bangquan Department of Food Science & Nutrition NJNU. § 1 Concept. Lipids is as Fat Oil Lipid. 1 Neutral Fat

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Chapter2 Lipids & Its Function

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Chapter2 lipids its function

Chapter2 Lipids & Its Function

Professor, Dr. Jin Bangquan

Department of Food Science & Nutrition

NJNU


1 concept

§1 Concept

Lipids is as Fat

Oil

Lipid


Chapter2 lipids its function

1 Neutral Fat

Glycerin + Fatty Acids (FA)

1.1 Triglyceride, Diglyceride, Olyglyceride

1.2 C-chain of FA: short, Middle, Longer


Chapter2 lipids its function

  • Neutral fat in food

    Triglyceride is by 95%

    Diglyceride +

    Olyglyceride is by 5%

  • Neutral fat in human body

    Triglyceride is by 99%


2 lipids

2 Lipids

Containing:

Phospholipids

Glycolipids

Sterols

Lipoprotein

P21-22


3 fatty acids fa

和动物组织含有的不饱和脂肪酸主要为软油酸(16:1△9)、油酸(18:1△9)、亚油酸(18:2△9,12)、亚麻酸(18:3△9,12,15)、花生四烯酸(20:4△5,8,11,14)等。其中最普通的单不饱和脂肪酸软油酸和油酸可由相应的脂肪酸活化后经去饱和酶(acylCoAdesaturase)催化脱氢生成(见下图)。这类酶存在于滑面内质网,属混合功能氧化酶;因该酶只催化在△9形成双键,而不能在C10与末端甲基之间形成双键,故亚油酸(linoleate)、亚麻酸(linolenate)及花生四烯酸(arachidonate)在体内不能合成或合成不足。但它们又是机体不可缺少的,所以必须由食物供给,因此,称之为必需脂肪酸(essential fatty acid)。

和动物组织含有的不饱和脂肪酸主要为软油酸(16:1△9)、油酸(18:1△9)、亚油酸(18:2△9,12)、亚麻酸(18:3△9,12,15)、花生四烯酸(20:4△5,8,11,14)等。其中最普通的单不饱和脂肪酸软油酸和油酸可由相应的脂肪酸活化后经去饱和酶(acylCoAdesaturase)催化脱氢生成(见下图)。这类酶存在于滑面内质网,属混合功能氧化酶;因该酶只催化在△9形成双键,而不能在C10与末端甲基之间形成双键,故亚油酸(linoleate)、亚麻酸(linolenate)及花生四烯酸(arachidonate)在体内不能合成或合成不足。但它们又是机体不可缺少的,所以必须由食物供给,因此,称之为必需脂肪酸(essential fatty acid)。

3 Fatty Acids (FA)

3.1 The C-chain length

3.1.1 Longer : > 14 C-chain

3.1.2 Middle: 8-12 C-chain

3.1.3 Shorter: < 6 C-chain

3.1.4 Free Fatty Acids

(FFA) 3-5 C-chain

P20-21


Chapter2 lipids its function

3.2 Saturation

3.2.1 Saturated Fatty Acid (FA)

3.2.2 Monounsaturated Fatty Acid (M-UFA)

3.2.3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA)


3 3 fa structure in space

3.3 FA Structure in Space

3.3.1 Cis-fatty Acid

3.3.2 Trans -fatty Acid


3 4 essential fatty acid efa

3.4 Essential fatty acid (EFA)

Linoleate (18:2△) n-6,9 all cis√

Linolenate (18:3△) (α) n-3,6,9 all cis√

(γ )n-6,9,12 all cis

Arachidonate (20:4 △) n- 6,9,12,15 all cis

Others:

软油酸(16:1△9)

油酸(18:1△9)

In Nutrition: n-3 & n-6 (or ω-3, ω-6)

P21


2 composition ratio in body

§2 Composition & Ratio in Body

1 Chemical:

C、H、O (Mainly)

N、S、P(Less)

2 Ratio:10-20% in body

most in fatty tissue

Lipids: 5%

3 Better Sources: Vegetable oil;

eg: corn oil, sesame oil


Chapter2 lipids its function

Fatty tissue


4 analysis and its equipment

4 Analysis and its Equipment

  • Fat Extracter: Soxthem method

  • Instruments


3 characteristics suppl

§3 CharacteristicsSuppl.

1Physical Chemical

TendernessC-chain length

Melting pointFA saturation

FlavourFA location/Gly

Notes:

  • Vegetable oil: Liquid status in the air temperature

    because it contains FA < 12C UFA mostly

  • Animal Fat: Solid status

    because it contains FA>14-20C mostly


2 chemical suppl

2 ChemicalSuppl.

  • 氢化(Hydrogenation): 双键打开以增加饱和度(人造奶油)

  • 乳化(Emulsification):以水包油形式形成脂肪微粒(色拉)

  • 皂化(Saponification):FA与阳离子形成不溶性物质

  • 酸败(Rancidity):FA氧化变质


4 fatty function p19

§4 Fatty FunctionP19

  • Body Composition, Cell membrane structure

  • Padding (填充) Maintaining temperature

  • Insulation (绝缘) Protecting

  • Supplying Energy Coefficient = 9kcal/g

    37.7kJ/g

  • Endo-secretive

  • Delaying empty in stomach, Increasing satiety

  • Improving palatability of foods

  • Carriers of fatty soluble vitamins, hormones


Classification

Classification

Stored Fat

Variable Fat

White Fat

Brown Fat

Suppl.


Chapter2 lipids its function

Fatty tissue


Efa function

EFA Function

  • Phospholipids of ingredients

  • Prostaglandins (前列腺素) synthesisy from linolic acid

  • Taking part in cholesterolmetabolism

  • EFAwith vitamins deficiency Suppl.


5 phospholipids steroids

§5 Phospholipids & Steroids

  • Phospholipids: Kinds, Emulsifying agent

  • Steroids: Cholesterol: Testosterone, Cortisol, Vit. D

    P21-22


6 digestion absorption metabolism

§6Digestion, Absorption & Metabolism

Upper small intestine

Blood

lymph

Liver


Transition types

Transition types

4 kinds of Carried-lipo-protein

  • Chylomicron, CM 转运脂肪滴进中央乳管

  • Very Low Density-, VLDL 肝中合成的脂肪

  • Low Density-, LDL 转运并沉积其它

  • High Density-, HDL 脂肪转运至肝中降解

    Metabolic route: -氧化途径


7 nutritional evaluation

§7 Nutritional Evaluation

Similar to protein

1 Fatty Digestivity: 90-98%

2EFA Content: oil > fat

3Vit. A, D, E Content


8 lipids sources and supplement

§8 Lipids Sources and Supplement

1Sources: Vegetable & animal food

2RDA:50-70g/d/per;

3SupplyRatio:20-30%for adults

40-45% for infants

  • EFA in energy:3%

    Infants need more than above

  • Saturated FA: < 10% in intake

  • Cholesterolintake < 300mg/d/p

    (Committee on Diet and Health in US)


Nowadays

Nowadays

油脂消费量

脂代谢疾病

北京/上海 83-85g/d

肥胖

高血脂

脂肪肝

冠心病


Malnutrition

Malnutrition

  • EFA deficiency

  • TG

  • Cholesterol

    P21-22


Measuring body fat

Measuring Body Fat

  • Skinfold

  • Body Fat (%)

  • Broca (WB) =

    BH (cm)-100

  • BMI = BW(kg)/ BH(m)2


Quanstion

Quanstion

1脂肪的营养学意义?

2 什么是类脂,包括哪些?

3 必需脂肪酸?

4 多不饱和脂肪酸,重要的有几种?

5 何为载脂蛋白,它们的功能?

6 摄入的脂肪应该包括哪些?

7 日常生活中脂肪摄入过多,仅因为是动物食品过多吗?

8 高脂饮食的危险性?

9 近年中国人烹饪方式会引起脂肪摄入过高吗?

10 动植物油脂的差异在哪?


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