Bullying health and interventions
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Bullying: Health and interventions. Elyssa R. lazu. CBSE 720.1T, Fall 2012. Table of Contents. Introduction- What is Bullying? Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of Hypotheses Participants Instruments Appendices A, B, C, D & E References.

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Bullying health and interventions

Bullying: Health and interventions

Elyssa R. lazu

CBSE 720.1T, Fall 2012


Table of contents

Table of Contents

  • Introduction- What is Bullying?

  • Statement of the Problem

  • Review of Related Literature

  • Statement of Hypotheses

  • Participants

  • Instruments

  • Appendices A, B, C, D & E

  • References


Introduction what is bullying

IntroductionWhat is bullying?

  • It happens in classrooms, lunchrooms, playgrounds, unsupervised areas (walks home) and most recently the internet. (Siegle, 2010)

  • Bullying is an unwanted repetitive behavior, which involves hitting, pushing, and verbal abuse. Bullying leads to many dangerous events. (Young & Ward, 2011)

  • Children who either join in bullying or observe without trying to stop it reinforce the bully’s behavior.(Bauer, Lozano, & Rivara, 2007)

  • Bystanders are those that are present when bullying occurs and do nothing to help. (Atlas & Pepler, 2001)

After all there are no innocent bystanders. Whatare they doing here in the first place?”

— William S. Burroughs


Statement of the problem

Statement of the problem

  • Amajor issue within the school system and school systems have not done all they can to prevent them. (Sylvester, 2011)

  • It has become a major concern on long-term and short-term health.

  • Long-term consequences of being bullied may lead to serious mental health problems, such as depression or suicidal thoughts (Fritz, 2006).

  • Lack of awareness and adult involvement. (Atlas & Pepler, 2001)

  • Not a priority until a tragedy occurs (suicide).(Goodwin, 2011)


Literature review health concerns

Literature reviewHealth Concerns

  • The American Medical Association has designated school bullying a public health concern (Graham & Bellmore, 2007)

  • Direct Bullying Victims and bully/victims had unusual repeated sore throats, colds or coughs, breathing problems, nausea, and poor appetite. Also made up illnesses to stay home. ( Wolke, Woods & Bloomfield, 2001)

  • Associations between victims not being able to sleep well, bed wetting, feeling sad, increased headaches and belly aches. (Williams, Chambers, Logan, & Robinson, 1996)

  • School nurse logs showed frequent visits with somatic illnesses was a cause for concern. Involvement in bullying can have negative effects on a child's health and should be followed up with their Dr. ( Vernberg, Nelson, Fonagy & Twemlow, 2011)


Literature review theorists practitioners

Literature ReviewTheorists/Practitioners

  • Dan Olweus (2003) founder of the Olweus Bullying Prevention program. Depends on changing the attitudes, behavior and routines in the school. Everyone must play a role in the intervention in order for their to be a decrease in bullying. May even prevent new cases of bullying.

  • Kochenderfer-Ladd & Pelletier (2008) believe teachers play a big part in managing and preventing bullying in schools early in a child’s educational process and should be involved in applying interventions.

  • Nansel (2001) feels that bullying is in need of serious attention in order to prevent further incidents and for the sake of future research

  • Entenman, Murnen, & Hendricks (2005) believe that bullying can be addressed through literature.


Literature review theorists practitioners cont d

Literature ReviewTheorists/Practitioners Cont’d

  • Emma Roberts much like Kochenderfer-Ladd makes note of importance of teacher involvement in the interventions, how teachers perceive anti-bullying interventions, and role they should be playing.

  • Communication line between child, parents, teachers, and doctors regarding bullying is important. Recommends a whole school approach. (Fekkes, Pijpers & Verloove-Vanhorick, 2005)

  • Good, McIntosh, & Gietz(2011) promote bullying prevention programs and how they promote positive and social learning environments.


Statement of hypotheses

Statement of Hypotheses

  • Integrating an anti-bullying instructional unit to 30 third grade students at PS X in Brooklyn, N.Y., during the morning for 40 minutes three times a week over a 4 week period will decrease bullying and promote awareness.


Participants

Participants

  • Third grade classroom of school P.S.X

  • Thirtyelementary school students (age range from 9-10)

  • Fifteen boys, fifteen girls

  • Classroom Teacher with 15+ years of general subject teaching experience


Instruments

Instruments

  • The researcher will get permission from the principal and coordinating teacher, and will then send a consent form to the parents explaining the study and requesting permission to test the effectiveness of bullying interventions and whether or not awareness decreases prevalence. Students will be asked to participate in a read aloud activities and character play. Students will be given a survey before and after the lesson is generated in order to see what information the students posses, and to see the effectiveness of the lesson.


Appendix a parent release form

Appendix A- Parent Release Form

  • Dear Parent/ Guardian,

  • I am currently a graduate student in the Childhood Education Masters program at Brooklyn College. I am conducting a research study to see whether or not bullying interventions promote awareness and decrease prevalence. Therefore, I am requesting your permission to use your student’s data for my Action Research Project. All of the lessons will be administered during your child’s scheduled classroom instruction for this subject, and all standards and lesson objectives will be addressed and accomplished.

  • All results of the Action Research Project will be reported as a group study, which means that all students’ names and all corresponding information will remain completely anonymous. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to contact me via email at [email protected]

  • Thank you in advance for your support

  • Sincerely,

  • ElyssaLazu

  •  I give _______________ (Student’s name) permission to participate in the research study.

  • __________________ _______________

  • (Parent/ Guardian Signature) Date(Date)


Appendix b teacher release form

Appendix B- Teacher Release Form

  • Dear Teacher,

  • I am currently a graduate student in the Childhood Education Masters program at Brooklyn College. I am conducting an Action Research Projectto see whether or not bullying interventions promote awareness and decrease prevalence. Therefore, I am requesting your permission to use your class to administer and collect data for my research study. I am requesting to use your class of third-grade students, in which I will incorporate a bullying unit using literature and role-play, for one 40-minute period, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. All of the lessons will be administered during your students’ scheduled classroom instruction for this subject, and all standards and lesson objectives will be addressed and accomplished.

  • The results of the Action Research Project will be reported as a group study, which means that all students’ names and all corresponding information will remain completely anonymous. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to contact me via email at [email protected]

  • Thank you in advance for your support!

  • Sincerely,

  • ElyssaLazu

  • I give ________________ (Student’s name) permission to participate in the research study.

  • ______________________ _______________

  • (Teacher’s Signature(Date)


Appendix c principal release form

Appendix C- Principal Release Form

  • Dear Principal,

  • I am currently a graduate student in the Childhood Education Masters program at Brooklyn College. I am conducting a research study to see whether or not bullying interventions promote awareness and decrease prevalence. Therefore, I am requesting your permission to use your student’s data for my Action Research Project. I am requesting to use one class of third-grade students, in which I will incorporate a bullying intervention unit using literature and role-play, for one 40-minute period, 3 times a week, for 4 weeks. All of the lessons will be administered during your student’s scheduled classroom instruction for this subject, and all standards and lesson objectives will be addressed and accomplished.

  • All results of the Action Research Project will be reported as a group study, which means that all students’ names and all corresponding information will remain completely anonymous. If you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to contact me via email at [email protected]

  • Thank you in advance for your support!

  • Sincerely,

  • ElyssaLazu

  • I give the student _______ (Student’s name) permission to participate in the research study.

  • ____________________ _________________

  • Principal’s Signature) (Date)


Appendix d survey

Appendix D- Survey

  • Have you felt sick after being bullied?

  • Yes b) No

  • How often have you missed school because you feel unsafe, uncomfortable or nervous at school or on your way to and from school?

  • Never b) sometimes (1-2x’s a month)

  • c) Regularly (1-2 x’s a wk)

  • d) everyday

  • If you witnessed someone getting bullied, what would you do?

  • a)Tell someone b) mind your business c) join in d) sit and watch

  • Has an adult at school talked to your class on bullying?

  • Once, but they don’t understand what is going on

  • Once, what they said helped me

  • No d) regularly

  • Is bullying a concern for you?

  • a) Yes b) No

  • Have you ever been bullied?

  • a) Yes b) No

  • If yes, Has it taken place within the past 12 months?

  • a) Yes b) No

  • If yes, where did it take place?

  • a) Neighborhood b) Home c) Park

  • d) School Bus e) lunchroom f) halls

  • g) Classroom h) other__________

  • How were you bullied?

  • Teased and called names

  • Hit and/or kicked or pushed

  • Being left out of groups

  • Threats to hurt me

  • Threats to hurt me on my way to and from school

  • By phone or text


Appendix e survey after unit

Appendix E-Survey After Unit

  • Who would you feel more comfort talking to if bullied?

  • a) Teacher b) parent c) counselor

  • Is it important to be nice to other kids? a) Yes b) No

  • Is teasing bullying?

  • Yes b) No

  • Did you feel the literature unit and role playing helped you to better understand bullying?

  • Is bullying a concern for you?

  • Yes b) No

  • If you witness someone being bullied what will you do?

  • Tell someone b) step in and help c) nothing

  • How do you think kids feel when they are bullied? (Circle all that apply)

  • Happy b) sad c) uncomfortable d) nervous e) alone

  • Have you noticed bullying as much as before? A) Yes b) No


References

references

  • Atlas, R. S. & P. D. J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The

  • Journal of Educational Research, 92, 86-99. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27542195

  • Bauer, N. S., Lozano, P., & Rivara, F. P. (2007). The effectiveness of the olweusbullying prevention program in public middle schools: A controlled trial. Journal of Adolescent Health,40, 266-274.

  • Dervin, D., (2011). 2010: The year of the bully. Journal of Psychohistory,38(4), 337-345.

  • Entenman, J., Murnen, T. J., & Hendricks, C. (2005). Victims, bullies, and bystanders in K-3 literature. International Reading Association, 59(4), 352-364.

  • Fekkes, M., Pijpers, F.I.M. , Verloove-Vanhorick, S. P. (2005) Bullying: who does what, when and where? Involvement of children, teachers and parents in bullying behavior. Health Education Research, 20, 81-91. Retrieved from http://her.oxfordjournals.org/content/20/1/81.full.pdf+html

  • Ferguson, C.J., San Miguel, C., Killburn, Jr., J. C., & Sanchez, P. (2007). The

  • effectiveness of school based-anti-bullying programs. Criminal Justice Review, 32 (4), 401-414


References1

references

  • Good, C. P., McIntosh, K., & Gietz, C. (2011). Integrating bullying prevention into schoolwide positive behavior support. Teaching exceptional children, 44(1), 48-56. Retrieved by http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid

  • Goodwin, B., (2011). Bullying is common and subtle. Educational Leadership, 69(1), 82-84.

  • Graham, S., & Bellmore, A. D. (2007). Peer victimization and mental health during early adolescence. Theory into practice, 46 (2), 138-146.

  • Kochenderfer-Ladd, & Pelletier, M. E. (2008). Teachers' views and beliefs about bullying: Influences on classroom management strategies and students' coping with peer victimization. Journal of School Psychology , 431-453. Retrieved from http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022440507000817/1-s2.0-S0022440507000817-main.pdf?

  • Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U.S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094-2100. Retrieved from: http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/


References2

references

  • Olweus, D. (2003). A profile of bullying at school. Educational Leadership, 60(6), 12-17. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=fda528e8-142e-48f8-b5b5-71847ab1b130%40sessionmgr112&vid=6&hid=20

  • Roberts, E. E. (2011). Teachers’ perceptions of anti-bullying interventions and the types of bullying each intervention prevents. ARECLS, 8, 75-94. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid

  • Roland, E., & Galloway, D. (2002). Classroom influences on bullying. Educational

  • Research, 44 (3), 299-312. Retrieved from: http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/detail?vid=16&hid=102&sid=eff0af4d-

  • Siegle, D. (2010). Cyber bullying and sexting: Technology abuses of the 21st century. Gifted Child Today, 33(2) 14-16

  • Sylvester, Ruth (2011) Teacher as bully: Knowingly and unintentionally

  • harming students. The Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin v. 77 no. 2. Retrieved from http://www.readperiodicals.com/201101/2257395101.html#b


References3

References

  • Williams, K. , Chambers, M. , Logan, S. , and Robinson, D. (1996). Association of common health symptoms with bullying in primary school children. British Medical Journal, 313, 17-19.Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2351438

  • Wolke, D., Woods, S., Bloomfield, L., Karstadt. (2001). Bullying involvement in primary school and common health problems. Arch Dis Child, 85, 197-201. Retrieved from http://adc.bmj.com/content/85/3/197.full.pdf+html

  • Vernberg, M. E., Nelson, D. T., Fonagy, P., Twemlow, W. S (2011). Victimization, aggression, and visits to the school nurse for somatic complaints, illnesses, and physical injuries. Journal of Pediatrics, 127, 842-848. Retrieved from http://www.pediatricsdigest.mobi/content/127/5/842.full.pdf+html

  • Yerger, W., & Gheret, C. (2011). Understanding and dealing with bullying in schools. The Education Forum, 75 (4), 315-326. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer/

  • Young, T. A., & Ward, B. A. (2011). Bullies in recent books for children and young adults. Retrieved from ehis.ebscohost.comez-proxy.brooklyn.cuny.edu:2048/ehost/pdfviewer?sid


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