The Egyptian Book of the Dead.
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The Egyptian Book of the Dead
What we call the Egyptian Book of the Dead was known to the Egyptians as Reu nu pert em hru translated that means “The Chapters of coming forth by day.” It is a collection of chapters made up of magic spells and formulas. It was illustrated and written on papyrus. These papyri were commissioned by the deceased before their death. Like most products these text came in different qualities. You could commission the finest quality papyrus money could buy or you could purchase one "off the rack" and have a scribe fill in the blanks with your name.
Servants are dragging a chest on which Anubis is sitting, inside the chest is
more of Ani's worldly possessions or perhaps his canopic jars. All of these objects
will be placed in the tomb for his use in the afterlife. In front of them are eight male
mourners dressed in white. Ani's mummy rides on a funerary boat which is being
drawn by oxen. Very hard to see in this picture are the goddesses Isis and
Nephthys who are usually shown in this scene protecting the dead. Ani's wife
mourns at his side. The man wearing a leopard skin and turned back towards Ani's
mummy is a priest, he is burning incense.
Hunefer's mummy stands before the entrance of his tomb, in the
protective embrace of Anubis. The two women are probably family
members, they are patting dirt on their heads, this was a sign of
mourning. Behind them are three priests. The priest wearing the
leopard skin (a sign of priesthood) burns incense and presents
offerings of food and drink, while the other two are about to perform
the important ceremony of “opening of the mouth.” This ceremony
was thought to restore the mummy's ability to see, breathe, eat and