Accelerators
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Accelerators In order to probe the nucleus - just as Rutherford probed the atom with alpha particles - we need to use more energetic particles. These are not easily found in naturally occurring radioactive samples so we have to accelerate them artificially.

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Accelerators

In order to probe the nucleus - just as Rutherford probed the atom with alpha particles - we need to use more energetic particles.

These are not easily found in naturally occurring radioactive samples so we have to accelerate them artificially.


Particles are accelerated by the electromagnetic force - this implies that only charged particles can be accelerated.

Due to the small size/mass and strong ionising power of the particles, a very high degree of vacuum is required.

Large superconducting electromagnets are frequently used to produce strong magnetic fields and radio frequency (rf) fields within cavities along the accelerator, which accelerate bunches of charged particles.


The Van de Graff accelerator: this implies

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10kV


The Linear Accelerators (Linacs) this implies

An accelerator, which consists of a long straight tube, is called a linear accelerator. The particles are fired from a VDG , into the linac and then into a stationary target.


It should be remembered that upon collision of two particles, the centre of mass (C of M) of the system will remain in a motion such that the momentum of the C of M remains unchanged.

Energy will consequently be “soaked up” in maintaining this motion so that the energy left to make up new particles will be limited.

If the target were moving towards the projectile, the momentum of the centre of mass of the system would be reduced and hence more energy would be available for the production of new particles.

This is not possible with the linac.


Drift Tubes - a type of Linac particles, the centre of mass (C of M) of the system will remain in a motion such that the momentum of the C of M remains unchanged.

Each RF cavity accelerates particles as they pass between them. The electric field changes when the particles are in the cavity and that has no effect. However, as they reach the spaces between the cavities, they are accelerated along to the next.

The first RF cavity goes positive

RF cavities

Negative particles will be attracted to it - accelerated

They will pass through it unaffected - constant velocity

The cavity in front goes positive

The cavity behind goes negative

The electron accelerates across the RF cavity

Adjacent cavities are always of opposite polarity


Accelerating Voltage (RF) particles, the centre of mass (C of M) of the system will remain in a motion such that the momentum of the C of M remains unchanged.

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ac particles, the centre of mass (C of M) of the system will remain in a motion such that the momentum of the C of M remains unchanged.

Vacuum

The Cyclotron

This was the first of the circular accelerators and was made from two Dees (semicircular boxes).


ac particles, the centre of mass (C of M) of the system will remain in a motion such that the momentum of the C of M remains unchanged.


This was fine at low speeds. At high speeds, m increased and they became unsynchronised. For this reason the synchrocyclotron was invented. It uses drift tubes in a large evacuated ring.


The degree of bending is exaggerated here they became unsynchronised. For this reason the

The main ring in Geneva (CERN) is 27km in diameter

The Synchrocyclotron Accelerator

This type of accelerator consists of a large diameter ring in which the particles are accelerated by rf cavities. The bending is obtained by using electromagnets - use Flemming’s left hand rule (FLHR) to convince yourself. This is useful as the tubes do not need to be too long and the particles can be stored.

Note that it is not really a ring but a series of straight lines (RF cavities) and curves (bending electromagnets).


THE END they became unsynchronised. For this reason the


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