Virsuses human immunodeficiency syndrome acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
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Virsuses: Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome & Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Outline. Introductory Comments Virus versus bacteria Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses How RNA containing viruses can replicate Origins of HIV Dr. Hahn and colleagues Characteristics of HIV Particle

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Virsuses:Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome& Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome


Outline

  • Introductory Comments

    • Virus versus bacteria

    • Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses

    • How RNA containing viruses can replicate

  • Origins of HIV

    • Dr. Hahn and colleagues

  • Characteristics of HIV Particle

    • Glycoproteins

    • Viral genes

  • Laboratory Diagnostic Tests

    • PCR

    • Western Blot

    • ELISA

  • -------------------------------------------------- Part 2 -------------------------

  • Treatment

  • Transmission

  • Prevention


Bacteria versus Viruses


Note: These STDs are bacterial infections!

  • SYPHILIS

    • Bacterium: Treponema pallidum

  • GONORRHEA

    • Bacterium: Neisseria gonorrhoeae


Viruses

  • DNA containing

  • RNA containing


DNA containing viruses

  • Herpes virus

  • Small pox virus

  • Hepatitis B

  • adenovirus


RNA containing viruses

  • Hepatitis A and C

  • Rabies

  • Ebola

  • Measles

  • Mumps

  • Polio

  • HIV

Rabies virus

Measles on the back


HIV


Examples of how RNA viruses replicate

Negative strand

Positive

strand

Retro


RETROVIRAL REPLICATION


HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIECY VIRUS

  • Family: retrovirus

  • Genus: lentivirus

  • Species: HIV 1 and HIV 2

  • Groups and Subtypes: variety


Africa

Americas

China (southeast)

Europe

India

Japan

Thailand

A;D;C

B

C

B

C

B

E

“Predominant Subtypes of Group M”


Dr. Beatrice Hahn &

colleagues:

Drs. Li and Keele


Greater spot nose monkey

Red Cap Mangabey monkey

SIV cpz almost identical to HIV 1

Humans


Pan troglodytes troglodytes

Simian Virus (SIV cpz) almost identical to HIV 1


Sooty mangabey monkey

Simian Virus corresponds to HIV2


HIV: Structure and

mechanism of replication


HIV-1 PARTICLE


HIV Glycoproteins

  • Lipid Bilayer contains glycoproteins

    • Gp 160

    • Gp 120

    • Gp 41


T lymphocyte in green and HIV in red


HOST CELLS:helper T lymphocyte, macrophages

HIV and helper T cells

HIV-1

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter24/animation__hiv_replication.html


Budding of HIV from T lymphocyte

HIV

HIV


Mechanism of Infection

Infects Th cell

VIRAL RNA

Integrates into host DNA

“activated”

PROVIRAL DNA

LYTIC STAGE

storage

LYSOGENIC STAGE


Co-Receptors

Binds naturally occurring chemokines

CCR5 or CXCR4 (fusin)


LYTIC STAGE


The key HIV genes


HIV Diagnostic Tests

  • Western Blot

  • PCR

Directly measures HIV


Polymerase Chain Reaction

  • Measures proviral DNA within the host DNA


Western Blot

Identifies HIV proteins

Protein ladder


HIV Diagnostic Tests

  • ELISA

measures

Indirect evidence of HIV exposure


Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay

(ELISA)

  • A diagnostic test for Antibodies to HIV

Antibodies


*Antibodies are proteins produced by our immune system that are directed against specific antigens.(Antibody interactions with antigens will also be discussed in our “immungenetics lecture”)


Antibodies

Antigens

Immune system

Non-self


Now apply these concepts to the diagnostic test known as ELISA to detect antibodies against HIV from a biologic fluid.


Do any of these individuals carry antibodies to HIV?


ELISA MICROTITER PLATES

Microtiter plate


The ELISA protocol

sample

Labelled 2nd Ab

antigen

3

2

1

4

Color inducing substrate


Results

POSITIVE ANTI-HIV

COLOR CHANGE

NEGATIVE ANTI-HIV

NO COLOR CHANGE


FDA Approves Saliva OraQuick Rapid Test for HIV-1, HIV-2 Antibodies[March 29, 2004]

(similar test is also available for blood samples, see next slides).


1

2

OraQuick Rapid Anti-HIV Blood Test

20 minute test

Cost app. $15.00

3


Outline

  • Introductory Comments

    • Virus versus bacteria

    • Examples of DNA and RNA containing viruses

    • How RNA containing viruses can replicate

  • Origins of HIV

    • Dr. Hahn and colleagues

  • Characteristics of HIV Particle

    • Glycoproteins

    • Viral genes

  • Laboratory Diagnostic Tests

    • PCR

    • Western Blot

    • ELISA

  • -------------------------------------------------- Part 2 -------------------------

  • Treatment

  • Transmission

  • Prevention


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