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Practical Networking. Agenda. Nuts and Bolts of Internet Access, Edge, and Core Networks LAN Design End-user Protocols, Services and QoS Edge and Core Networks Performance Bandwidth and Delay Security. LAN Design (Access Network). LAN Design Goals.

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agenda
Agenda
  • Nuts and Bolts of Internet
  • Access, Edge, and Core Networks
  • LAN Design
  • End-user Protocols, Services and QoS
  • Edge and Core Networks
  • Performance
    • Bandwidth and Delay
  • Security
lan design goals
LAN Design Goals
  • Critical to design is insuring a fast and stable network that will scale well as the organization grows
  • Design steps are...
    • Gather & establish design goals based on user requirements
    • Determine data traffic patterns now & in the future
    • Define Layer 1, 2, & 3 devices & the LAN/WAN topologies
    • Document physical & logical network implementation
establish the design goals
Establish the Design Goals
  • Although organizations are unique to the customer, the following requirements tend to be generic to all. The network must have...
    • Functionality--speed and reliability
    • Scalability--ability to grow without major changes
    • Adaptability--easily implements new technologies
    • Manageability--facilitates monitoring and ease of management
critical components of lan design
Critical Components of LAN Design
  • With the emergence of high-speed technologies and complex LAN technologies, the following critical components need addressing in design
    • Function & placement of Servers
    • Collision Detection
    • Microsegmentation
    • Bandwidth v. Broadcast domains
placement of servers
Placement of Servers
  • Servers now perform special functions and can be categorized as either...
    • Enterprise Servers--supports all users on the network
      • DNS and mail servers
      • should be placed in the MDF

or...

    • Workgroup Servers--supports a specific set of users
      • file serving such as specialized databases
      • should be place in the IDF closest to users
intranets collisions
Intranets & Collisions
  • This has caused an increase in needed bandwidth. Therefore, design must address...
    • Type of data to be accessed
    • Server privileges
    • Outfitting desktops with faster connectivity
      • More processing power
      • 10/100Mbps NICs to provide migration to switched technologies
  • Collision detection and minimization has become a major concern as users attempt to access the same server.
  • As we’ve seen, switches can provide dedicated bandwidth to minimize or eliminate collisions.
broadcasts segmentation
Broadcasts & Segmentation
  • Layer 2 devices segment collision domains
  • Layer 3 devices segment broadcast domains
bandwidth v broadcast domains
Bandwidth v. Broadcast Domains
  • A bandwidth domain is shared by all devices on a single switched port.
    • Synonymous with collision domain
  • A broadcast domain is shared by all devices on a single router interface.
network availability
Network Availability
  • Network design seeks to provide the greatest availability for the least cost.
  • Factors that affect availability include...
    • Throughput
    • Response time
    • Access to resources
  • In the graphic, what type of server is each and where should each be placed?
ethernet cable runs
Ethernet Cable Runs
  • The physical cabling (also called the cable plant) is the most important Layer 1 issue to consider when designing a network.
  • Design issues include...
    • Type of cable to use (twisted-pair, coax, fiber)
    • Where to use each type (e.g. fiber on the backbone)
    • How far each run must travel before being terminated (twisted-pair is limited to what distance?)
  • In an existing LAN, a cable audit is performed to determine where upgrading and/or replacement of bad cables is needed.
mdf and idf
MDF and IDF
  • Short for main distribution frame, a cable rack that interconnects and manages the telecommunications wiring between itself and any number of IDFs (Intermediate Distribution Frames). Unlike an IDF, which connects internal lines to the MDF, the MDF connects private or public lines coming into a building with the internal network. For example, an enterprise that encompasses a building with several floors may have one centralized MDF on the first floor and one IDF on each of the floors that is connected to the MDF.
mdf other acronyms
MDF & Other Acronyms
  • Whether the LAN is a star or extended star, the MDF is the center of the star.
    • From the workstation to the telecommunications outlet, the patch cable should be no more than 3m.
    • From their to the patch panel, called the HCC, no more than 90m.
    • From the patch panel (the HCC) to the switch, no more than 6m.
mdf other acronyms1
MDF & Other Acronyms
  • When distances to the MDF are more than 100m, an IDF is normally added.
  • The cable run from the IDF to the MDF is called the VCC and is usually fiber.
  • VCC is just another name for the backbone.
  • By adding more wiring closets (more IDFs), you create multiple catchment areas (Click of graphic button)
10baset and 100baset ethernet
10BaseT and 100BaseT Ethernet
  • 100 BaseT (also called Fast Ethernet) is now the standard for connecting IDFs to the MDF.
    • Although you can run Fast Ethernet over 100BaseT cabling (twisted pair), the distance limitation means fiber is most often used
    • The 100BaseT standard running on twisted pair is called 100BaseTX
layer 1 logical documentation
Layer 1 Logical Documentation
  • Layer 1 logical documentation is concerned with...
    • exact location of MDF/IDF
    • type & quantity of cabling
    • room locations & # of drops
    • port numbers
    • cable labels
  • Notice Layer 1’s logical documentation shows nothing about logical addressing
common layer 2 devices
Common Layer 2 Devices
  • The two most common Layer 2 devices are...
    • Bridges and
    • LAN Switches
  • Both provide the added benefit of what?
  • Segmenting collision domains into microsegments.
  • Switches can also provide connections of unlike bandwidth (e.g., 100Mbps to the server & 10Mbps to workstations). This is called...?
sizing collision domains
Sizing Collision Domains
  • In a switched LAN environment using hubs, the bandwidth of each switched port is shared by all the devices. Therefore, they also share the same collision domain.
  • To determine the bandwidth per host, simply divide the port’s bandwidth by the number of hosts (see graphic).
migrating to 100baset
Migrating to 100BaseT
  • As long as your workstations all have 10/100 NICs, increasing the bandwidth is easy.
    • Replace the hub with a 100Mbps capable hub and patch the HCC into a 100Mbps port on the switch.
    • In addition, you can add another 100Mbps VCC from the IDF to the MDF, which provide 200 Mbps to the IDF’s switch.
    • In the graphic, the red lines represent migrating to 100Mbps.
collision and broadcast domains
Collision and Broadcast domains
  • Hub
    • A hub receives a packet (chunk) of data (a frame in Ethernet lingo) at one of its ports from a PC on the network, it transmits (repeats) the packet to all of its ports and, thus, to all of the other PCs on the network.  If two or more PCs on the network try to send packets at the same time a collision is said to occur.
  • Switch
    • An Ethernet switch automatically divides the network into multiple segments, acts as a high-speed, selective bridge between the segments, and supports simultaneous connections of multiple pairs of computers which don\'t compete with other pairs of computers for network bandwidth.  It accomplishes this by maintaining a table of each destination address and its port.
routers and design
Routers and Design
  • Routers provide both physical and logical segmentation.
    • Physically, routers segment what?
    • Logically, routers segment according to Layer 3 addressing dividing the LAN into logical segments called subnets.
diagramming a lan with routers
Diagramming a LAN with Routers
  • Notice in the graphic that the two networks are kept separate by the router.
  • Each switch serves a different network regardless of the physical location of the devices.
logical physical network maps
Logical & Physical Network Maps
  • After determining your Layer 1, 2, and 3 design, you can create your addressing (logical) and physical maps. These are invaluable. They
    • Give a snapshot of the network
    • Show subnet mask info
    • Help in troubleshooting
vlan implementation
VLAN implementation
  • Created by software running on Layer 2 switches
  • Three methods for implementing VLANs
    • Port-Centric
    • Static
    • Dynamic
port centric vlan

3 Port-Centric VLANs

Port-Centric VLAN
  • Same VLAN, same router interface
  • Easy for managemen
static vlan
Static VLAN
  • Ports on a switch are administratively assigned to a VLAN
  • Benefits
    • can be assigned by port, address, or protocol type
    • secure, easy to configure and monitor
    • works well in networks where moves are controlled
dynamic vlan
Dynamic VLAN
  • Switch ports can automatically determine a user’s VLAN assignment based on either/or:
    • MAC / logical address / protocol type
  • When connected to an unassigned port, the switch dynamically configures the port with the right VLAN
references
References
  • Slides adapted from Allan Johnson, CCNA
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