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Overview of Chapter 1-4: October 17. Chapter 1 Overview. Dx dy = [R*cos  * d  ][Rd  ]. Application to Atmospheric flow, e.g., Exercise 1.20. N 2 , O 2 dissociation. P=mg P ~ p o exp(-z/H). O 3 dissociation. Rad. + conv. Main gases + greenhouse gases (Table 1.1).

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Chapter 1 Overview

Dx dy =

[R*cos* d][Rd]

Application to

Atmospheric flow, e.g.,

Exercise 1.20

N2, O2 dissociation


P ~ po exp(-z/H)

O3 dissociation

Rad. + conv.

Main gases + greenhouse gases (Table 1.1)

Cyclonic: low pressure in

both hemispheres, CCW



Think: right-hand-rule. explains

Flow around a low in NH

Horizontal heating gradients aquaplanet simulation
Horizontal heating gradients:aquaplanet simulation

Surface winds + SLP, NCEP


Understand (simply) what are the

Major meteorological regimes

And why they are there.


July rainfall

Chapter 2: The Earth System

Thermohaline circulation

Cryosphere budget (table 2.1)

Carbon Cycle


Earth History:hothouse period, glacial cycles

Exercises: know how to do all of them, will provide

numbers for calc.

Mass units of 103 kg m-2; equivalent to meters of water

averaged over surface of earth

Euphotic zone takes up carbon dioxide, decaying matter

Sinks it deeper.




The Ocean

Carbon in the Oceans:

CO2 + H2O -> H2CO3 carbonic acid. Equilibrate w/atmos.

H2CO3 -> H+ + HCO3 bicarbonate ion

HCO3 -> H+ + CO32-

Net: CO2 + CO32- + H2O -> 2HCO3

This is connected to Calcium from the Earth’s mantle:

Ca + 2HCO3 -> CaCO3 + H2CO3coral. 3rd carbon cycle

Where the Ca derived from the weathering of

Rocks containing Ca-Si.


Unique component of Earth’s atmosphere

Increasing with time:

Photosynthesis creates oxygen

- and -

Reduction of water (H2O -> H2 + O) via mineralization,

with hydrogen escaping to space.

Early Earth’s History, in brief:

~ 4.5 billion years ago (bya): accretion from

planetesimals, evidence is lack of noble gases relative

to cosmos.

2. 1st ~750 millions years, named Hadean Epoch: more

bombardment, early atmosphere, moon

3. 1st production of O2, 3.0-3.8 bya.

Low atmos. conc., but ozone layer

4. Increased O2, 2 bya. -> 1st glaciation

Sun’s luminosity increases w/ time as core contracts.

Why wasn’t Earth’s surface frozen ?

Initial high methane conc gives way to oxygen

3 major glaciations. First is ~ 2.3 bya

Initial high methane conc. gives way to oxygen ->

2nd glaciation: ~ 2.5 million years ago.

  • Reduced plate tectonics -> reduced volcanic

  • emission of CO2. +

  • Increased sink of CO2 in oceans through increased

  • Atmospheric carbon

  • Movement of Antarctica to SP -> increased albedo

  • Drake Passage opens, Panama Isthmus closes

  • -> Changing thermohaline circulation

  • -> less poleward heat transport ->colder Arctic

3rd glaciation mechanism: orbital mechanics

primarily northern

hemisphere summertime

solar insolation changes

that matter

Last glacial maximum 20,000 years ago

Global sea level ~ 125 m lower

CO2 levels ~ 180 ppm

Snow/ice extent preceeds CO2 changes

Venus Mars Jupiter

Cold & small:

No (liquid) water

No vulcanism

No atmosphere


No oceans:

No hydrogen or water

Atmosphere all carbon

“runaway greenhouse







Chapter 3: Thermodynamics Jupiter

Of the W&H questions: ex. 3:18-3.24,3.26-3.36,3.39-3.44, understand

Ideas behind 3.53,3.54,3.55.

Nothing on Carnot Cycle. Will probably include a sounding plotted

On a skewT-lnp diagram & ask some questions about it.

Know: gas law p=RT. Applies separately to dry air, vapor

Connecting to observed p, where p = pdry air + pwater vapor; same

For  = dry air + water vapor)

p = RdTv where Tv ~ T(1+0.61w) ; w=mvapor/mdry air


hydrostatic eqn., geopotential height and thickness; scale height

1st law of thermo: dq -dw = du Jupiter

dw=p* dV

Specific heats cv = dq/dT|V constant= du/dT

cp = cv + R

Enthalpy = cpT ; dry static energy =h+

Stays constant if dq=0

Adiabatic; diabatic

Know the “dry” and “moist” variables,

What is conserved when, e,w,q,e,wsat,esat

Td,LCL,latent heating

Understand what happens to these variables as Jupiter

An air parcel moves over a mountain (3.5.7)

Static stability (z > 0 condition);

Concept behind brunt-vaisala f oscillations;

Conditional instability;

convective instability (ez > 0 condition);

Entropy dS=dQrev/T => s=cpln

Adiabatic transformations are isentropic

Concept behind Clasius-Clapeyron eqn.

Chapter 4: Radiative Transfer Jupiter

Exercises: 4.11-4.44,4.51,4.55,4.56

Know the various units

  • Integrated over all wavelengths: E=T4 ;

  • x 10-8 W m-2 K-4;

  • E is called irradiance, flux density. W/m^2

Sun Jupiter



Sahara Jupiter


Energy absorbed from Sun establishes Earth’s mean T Jupiter

Energy in=energy out

Fsun*pi*R2earth = 4*pi*R2earth*(1.-albedo)*(sigma*T4earth)

global albedo ~ 0.3

=> Tearth = 255 K

Fsun= 1368 W m-2

@ earth

This + Wien’s law explains why earth’s radiation is in the infrared

High solar transmissivity + low IR transmissivity = Jupiter

Greenhouse effect



Consider multiple isothermal layers, each in radiative equilibrium. Each layer, opaque in

the infrared, emits IR both up and down, while solar is only down

Top of atmosphere: Fin = Fout incoming solar flux = outgoing IR flux

At surface, incoming solar flux + downwelling IR = outgoing IR

=> Outgoing IR at surface, with absorbing atmosphere > outgoing IR with no atmosphere

Manabe&Strickler, 1964: Jupiter

Note ozone, surface T

Whether/how solar radiation scatters when it impacts Jupiter

gases,aerosols,clouds,the ocean surface depends on

1. ratio of scatterer size to wavelength:

Size parameter x = 2*pi*scatterer radius/wavelength

Sunlight on a flat ocean

Sunlight on raindrops

X large

X small

Scattering neglected

IR scattering off of air, aerosol

Microwave scattering off of clouds



Rayleigh scattering: solar scattering off of gases Jupiter

proportional to (1/


R=10-4 m

Gas (air)


Solar scattering

Cloud drops

Mie scattering:

1 < x < 50


Clouds. Jupiter

As a first approximation, infrared emissivity and

Cloud albedo can be parameterized as a function of

Liquid water path.

Note dependence on LWP (and optical depth) becomes

unimportant for thick clouds

A further improvement is drop size

Radiation transmits through an atmospheric layer Jupiter

According to:

  • I = intensity

  • = air density

    r = absorbing gas amount

    k =mass extinction coeff.

    rk = volume extinction coeff.

Path length ds

Inverse length unit


Radiative heating rate profiles: Jupiter


Cooling to space approximation:

Ignore all intervening layers

Manabe & Strickler, 1965

Rodgers & Walshaw, 1966, QJRMS