Blood lymph and immune systems
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Blood, Lymph and Immune Systems. Chapter 10. Blood. hem /o and hemat /o plasma - 55% formed elements - 45% serum - plasma without clotting proteins. Blood Cells. RBC - erythrocytes - erythropoiesis WBC - leukocytes - leukopoiesis Platelets - thrombocytes - thrombopoiesis. Erythrocytes.

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Blood, Lymph and Immune Systems

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Blood, Lymph and Immune Systems

Chapter 10


Blood

  • hem/o and hemat/o

  • plasma - 55%

  • formed elements - 45%

  • serum - plasma without clotting proteins


Blood Cells

  • RBC - erythrocytes - erythropoiesis

  • WBC - leukocytes - leukopoiesis

  • Platelets - thrombocytes - thrombopoiesis


Erythrocytes

  • erythr/o - red

  • cyte - cell

  • Hemoglobin - blood protein transports oxygen

  • Reticulocyte - immature erythrocyte

  • RBCs produced by red bone marrow


Leukocytes

  • leuk/o - white

  • Protect the body against invasion

  • Pass through capillary walls


  • Granulocytes

    • neutrophils (phagocytosis)

    • eosinophils (allergies)

    • basophils (promote inflammation)

  • Agranulocytes

    • lymphocytes (production of circulating antibodies)

    • monocytes (macrophages)

  • Collection of dead and living bacteria and leukocytes called pus, abscess.


Thrombocytes

  • smallest formed element

  • made in bone marrow

  • essential to blood coagulation

  • If injury, blood comes in contact with any tissue other than the lining of the vessels, platelets stick together, form plug, seals wound. Chemicals released, series of reactions, formation of clot.


Plasma

  • plasma

    • 92% water

    • 8% plasma proteins

      • albumin

      • globulin

      • fibrinogen

  • serum - plasma without clotting proteins or fibrinogen


Functions of the Immune System

  • To protect the entire body from a variety of harmful substances

    • pathogenic microorganisms

    • allergens

    • toxins

    • malignant cells


Structures of the Immune System

  • Unlike other body systems, Immune System is NOT contained within a single set of organs or vessels

  • Action depends on structures from lymphatic, cardiovascular, and Integumentary systems

  • Works primarily through antigen-antibody reaction


Lymphatic System

  • Major structures

    • lymph vessels

    • lymph nodes

    • lymph fluid

    • tonsils

  • Also

    • spleen

    • thymus


Functions of the Lymph System

  • lymph/o

  • drain fluid from tissue spaces and return to it to the blood

  • transport materials (nutrients, hormones and oxygen) to body cells

  • carry away waste products to the blood

  • transport lipids away from digestive system

  • control of infection


Lymph System

  • Lymph originates in blood plasma

  • Interstitial fluid

  • cleans and nourishes body tissues

  • collects cellular debris, bacteria

  • return to blood or lymph capillaries


Lymph Nodes

  • located in lymph vessels

  • small round or oval structures (filters)

  • depositories for cellular debris

  • bacteria and debris phagocytized


Lymph Nodes

  • inside are masses of tissue which contain WBCs (lymphocytes)

  • almost always grouped 2 or 3 to 100

  • invading cells destroyed in nodes and often swell as an indicator of the disease process


Spleen

  • sac-like mass of lymphatic tissue

  • filter for lymph

  • phagocytic cells

  • hemolytic


Thymus

  • lymphatic tissue

  • mediastinum

  • primary role: changes lymphocytes to T cells for cellular immunity


Tonsils

  • masses of lymph tissue designed to filter tissue fluid, not lymph

  • located beneath certain areas of moist epithelium exposed to outside and hence to contamination

  • any or all may become so loaded with bacteria that the pathogens gain dominance

  • should not be removed unless absolutely necessary.


Antigen-Antibody Reactions

  • Antigen - any substance that the body regards as foreign (virus, bacterium, toxin)

  • Antibody - a disease fighting protein developed by the body in response to the presence of an antigen

  • Antigen-antibody reaction or immune reaction


WBCs for Immune Reactions

  • monocytes - type of lymphocytes

    • formed in bone marrow/transported where needed by body

    • become macrophages

  • macrophage - phagocytic cell that protects body by ingesting invading cells

  • lymphocytes - major class of WBCs

    • formed in lymphatic tissue


Lymphocytes

  • T cells or T Lymphocytes

    • mature in thymus gland

    • Cell mediated immunity

  • B cells or B Lymphocytes

    • mature in bone marrow

    • antibody-mediated immunity


T Cell or T Lymphocyte(Cell Mediated Immunity)

  • T Cell (cell mediated immunity)

    • circulating lymphocytes

    • produced in bone marrow

    • matures in thymus

    • live for years

    • primary function: coordinate immune defenses and kill organisms


Lymphocyte: T Cells

  • helper T cells - essential to proper functioning of immune system

  • Memory cells- remember antigens and stimulate a faster response if same antigen introduced at a later time


Blood Groups

  • Four blood groups based on presence or absence of blood antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs

  • A - A antigen

  • B - B antigen

  • AB - both AB antigens

  • O - no AB antigens


  • Plasma does not contain the antibody against own antigen

  • Antigenson the donor’s RBCs react with the antibodies in patients plasma and cause a transfustion reaction.


Rh Factor

  • Rh factor is antigen present on RBC of 85% of pop. of US.

  • Rh positive and Rh negative

  • Rh neg pregnant woman may develop antibodies to the Rh protein of her Rh-positive fetus.

  • hemolytic disease of the newborn

  • prevented with RhoGAM


Immunity

  • Immunity-state of being resistant or not susceptible to a specific disease

  • Acquired immunity-any form of immunity NOT present at birth and obtained during life


Factors That Influence Immune System

  • Health

  • Age

  • Heredity


Anemias

  • Oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced

  • symptom of disease

  • erythropenia

  • hypochromasia

  • hematocrit


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

  • Caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)

  • HIV infects T-helper cells with often a long incubation of up to 10 years

  • AIDS name applied during advanced stages of disease

  • After immune system destroyed, opportunistic infections occur.


Autoimmune Disorders

Antigens stimulate development of antibodies that are unable to distinguish antigens of internal cells.

Body makes antibodies and T cells against itself and attacks own tissues.

Multisystemic involvement.

Myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis


Edema

  • Hypoproteinemia

  • lowers osmotic pressure within blood

    • large amounts of plasma pass out of blood

  • poor lymph drainage

  • increased capillary permeability

  • congestive heart failure

  • localized edema, ascites


Hemophilia

  • Hereditary blood clotting disorder

  • sex-linked, usually in men

  • lack factor VIII, essential for blood clotting

  • hematomas

  • hemarthrosis


Infectious Mononucleosis

  • Acute infection caused by virus.

  • Fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, atypical lymphocytes, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, abnormal liver function, and bruising.

  • transmitted by droplet infection

  • Infection confers permanent immunity

  • Treatment symptomatic


Oncology, the study of tumors

  • Metastasis, Metastasize

  • Carcinoma

    • Malignant Melanoma

    • Adenocarcinoma

  • Sarcoma (arises from bone, fat, muscle, etc.)

    • Osteocarcoma

    • Osteosarcoma

    • Myosarcoma

    • Myeloma


Leukemia

  • Major oncological disorder of blood-forming organs

  • malignant cells replace health bone marrow cells

  • acute myelogenous leukemia

  • acute lymphocytic leukemia


Hodgkin’s Disease

  • Malignant disorder

  • Painless, progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue first evident in cervical lymph nodes; splenomegaly

  • Anorexia, weight loss, pruritus, anemia, leukocytosis


Kaposi’s Sarcoma

  • Malignancy associated with AIDS

  • lesions emerge as purplish-brown macules and develop into plaques and nodules


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