An Evaluation of a Workplace Hazard: Carbon Monoxide . University of Central Florida, Introduction to Industrial Hygiene EIN 6264 April 1998 Submitted by, Tim Wallace, R.S [email protected] Identification of Workplace Hazard.
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Primarily known as an asphixiant or chemical anoxiant. This means that the CO causes absence or abnormally low amounts of oxygen in the body
CO simply disrupts the oxygen transport to all tissues in the body.
CO combines with hemoglobin in blood to form carboxyhemoglobin (COHb)Nature of Hazard
Blood means that the CO causes absence or abnormally low amounts of oxygen in the body
Central Nervous System
Tissues with the highest oxygen need are first affected:
exercising musclesHealth Effects (Target Organs or Systems)
a. cardiovascular disease (heart disease, coronary artery disease)
b. pulmonary disease (asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis)
c. blood disorders (sickle cell anemia, lassemia, others)
fire fighters means that the CO causes absence or abnormally low amounts of oxygen in the body
Kiln and furnace operators
lawn care workers
disaster relief workers
parking garage attendants
agricultural workersTypical Occupations that May Experience CO Hazard
OSHA PEL=50 ppm TWA means that the CO causes absence or abnormally low amounts of oxygen in the body
NIOSH REL=35 ppm TWA; 200 ppm ceiling
NIOSH IDLH=1,200 ppm
ACGIH TLV=25 ppm TWA
EPA NAAQS (Primary Standard) for outside air=9 ppm (TWA 8 hrs), =35 ppm (TWA 1 hr). This was established to protect public health (susceptible populations)Applicable IH Standards
Japan (JSOH) TWA = 50 ppm
HSE OES (United Kingdom) TWA = 50 ppm STEL = 300 ppm
Reference: “TLVs and Other Occupational Exposure Values”Still More TLV’s (International Flavor)
NRC (1987) EEGLs: 10 min = 1,500 ppm 30 min = 800 ppm 60 min = 400 ppm 24 hrs = 50 ppm
NRC = National Research Council
EEGL is Emergency Exposure Guidance Levels
Canadian IAQ Residential Exposure Guidelines: <11 ppm for 8 hrs, <25 ppm for 1hr (ASTER)
WHO Concentration of Concern is >30 ppmOther Guidelines
My project was a simulation of lawn care worker. 60 min = 400 ppm 24 hrs = 50 ppm
8 hour work day (~ 6 hrs of mowing)
work equipment varied
some CO exposure expected
Mowed two properties.
One property was approximately 1 acre and was mowed with push mower
2nd property was about 2.5 acres and was mowed by riding mowerCO Study, Occupation: Lawn Care Worker
Question: Will CO Exposure exceed any standards or guidelines during a simulated average 8-hour work shift for an Lawn Care Worker?
There seems to be few published reports on this type of a study. Some reports focus on small gasoline engines used inside buildings where the CO is easily concentrated.Subject of Study:
The momentary CO level measured during the start-up of the riding mower was elevated, however the duration of the exposure was short.
Graph of Data (available as handout)
Breaks and Lunch are distinct on data graphComments on Data
CO is especially a hazard in enclosed spaces
CO did not seem to be a serious hazard during normal mowing operations.
If CO levels were high and exceeded applicable TLVs, Control measures could be effectively instituted.Summary of Key Points
Heat Stress hazard.
Injuries (overturned tractors, cuts, eye injuries, thrown debris)
UV radiation exposure
exposure to bioaerosols (mold spores, pollen) - a problem for asthmatics and allergy sufferersNote: Other Potential Hazards Associated w/ Featured Occupation