Air pollution
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Air Pollution. Chapter 18-19. There is no place on Earth that isn’t affected by air pollution…. Air pollution : presence of chemicals in the atmosphere in concentrations high enough to harm organisms, ecosystems, human-made materials or to alter climate Ranges from annoying to lethal

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Air Pollution

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Air pollution

Air Pollution

Chapter 18-19

There is no place on Earth that isn’t affected by air pollution…


Air pollution

  • Air pollution: presence of chemicals in the atmosphere in concentrations high enough to harm organisms, ecosystems, human-made materials or to alter climate

    • Ranges from annoying to lethal

    • Refers to pollution in the troposphere

    • Natural sources

      • Dust, wildfires, volcanic eruptions

    • Human sources

      • Industrialized and urban areas

      • fossil fuel burning


Air pollution

  • Primary Pollutants: chemicals or substances emitted directly into the air from natural sources and human activities

    • Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides; particulate matter; VOCs (natural sources—terpenes, plant fragrance)

  • Secondary Pollutants: primary pollutants react with one another and natural components to form harmful chemicals, often in the presence of sunlight and water

    • Ozone, acid deposition (sulfates and nitrates)

  • To determine and monitor Air Quality, the EPA actively monitors…

    • carbon monoxide

    • ozone

    • lead

    • nitrogen dioxide

    • particulate matter (also known as particle pollution)

    • sulfur dioxide


Major air pollutants

Major Air Pollutants

  • Carbon Oxides

    • Carbon Dioxide: from fossil fuel burning (major pollutant); is a greenhouse gas that impacts climate; required for photosynthesis; colorless and odorless

    • Carbon Monoxide: from combustion of carbon (exhaust, forest burning, fossil fuels, tobacco smoke); Limits oxygen binding in hemoglobin which can result in heart attack, asthma, emphysema, nausea and death; colorless and odorless—dangerous indoor air pollutant


Air pollution

  • Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Nitric Acid

    • Nitric Oxide (NO): combustion in cars, coal burning, lightning, part of soil and water (nitrogen cycle); colorless and odorless

    • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2): nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen (NO2); reacts with water to form nitric acid and nitrate salts (acid deposition); forms photochemical smog (with sunlight); helps in the formation of tropospheric ozone; stinky, reddish-brown gas

    • Nitrous Oxide (N2O): greenhouse gas from fertilizers and animal wastes, also fossil fuel burning

      ** all are irritants to eyes, nose and throat, aggravate asthma and bronchitis; suppress plant growth and harm aquatic life


Air pollution

  • Sulfur Dioxide and Sulfuric Acid

  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO2): 1/3 comes from natural sources (sulfur cycle), the rest is anthropogenic (coal burning, oil refining, smelting); corrosive gas

  • Sulfuric Acid: forms when SO2 reacts with water in the atmosphere, then falls as acid deposition (acid rain).

    **Aggravate breathing problems (respiratory irritant), decrease plant growth, corrosive


Air pollution

  • Particulates

    • Suspended particulate matter (solid particles and liquid droplets); particles smaller than 10 micrometers are regulated by the EPA as air pollution (not filtered by nose/throat)

      • Outdoor: dust, wildfires, sea salt, coal/oil burning, cars (especially diesel), construction; road dust, rock crushing; volcanic activity

      • Indoor: cigarettes, burning inside (developing countries)

        **Aggravate eyes, nose, and throat, damage lungs, asthma/bronchitis, genetic mutations, and cancer (premature death)

        **Reduces the amount of incoming solar radiation (weather)


Air pollution

  • Ozone (O3)

  • Secondary pollutant that contributes to photochemical smog

    • Tropospheric ozone bad. Stratospheric ozone good.

  • Ozone thinning is the stratosphere…which increases the amount of UV radiation that reaches us

    • Damages living tissue

    • Results from release of CFCs and other Freons…from coolants and aerosols

    • Montreal Protocol—Limit these chemicals in manufactured products

      **Coughing and breathing problems (asthma and emphysema), lung/heart disease, irritant; damaging to rubber and plastic


Air pollution

  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

  • Organic compounds (hydrocarbons) that exist as gases in the atmosphere

    • Give off strong aroma (paint, perfume, gasoline, flatulence)

    • Help in formation of smog, not all hazardous…but some have the potential to be harmful

    • Ex. Methane—greenhouse gas from landfills, cows, decomposition, oil and gas burning/refining

    • Others include benzene, industrial solvents, gas and plastics


Air pollution

  • Mercury: found in coal and oil, released from fossil fuel burning, can settle out into water. Seeing bioaccumulation into food chains.

    • Toxin for central nervous system

  • Lead: occurs naturally in rocks and soils, also present in fuels and paints.

    • Toxic to central nervous system (children), affects learning, concentration, and intelligence


Factors affecting air pollution

Factors Affecting Air Pollution

  • Increase air pollution

    • Buildings break up wind

    • Hills/mountains decrease air flow

    • High temperature increases reactions

    • Emissions of VOCs increase smog formation

    • Temperature inversions (warm air over cool)

  • Decrease air pollution

    • Heavy particles settle out of air

    • Rain/snow cleanse air

    • Salty sea spray washes air

    • Winds mix air

    • Pollutants removed by reactions


Acid deposition

Acid Deposition

  • Air pollutants mix with water in air to form acidic precipitation (acid rain)

    • Nitrogen and sulfur oxides—form nitric and sulfuric acid (pH ~5)

  • Has been occurring since the Industrial Revolution

  • Usually a regional problem…downwind of coal burning facilities

  • Pollutants are moved by winds

  • Damages statues, buildings; causes respiratory diseases, leach toxic metals into the environment from rocks; harmful to aquatic ecosystems, hurts agriculture, and weakens forests and plants

  • Reduced by limiting emissions of pollutants (alternative energy sources)


Air pollution

Smog

  • Industrial

    • Unhealthy mix of sulfur dioxide and sulfuric acid and solid particles

    • Comes from coal burning in large quantities

    • Rarely a problem in developed countries…big problem in developing (China)

    • Sulfur dioxide and sulfates mostly; “grey smog”

  • Photochemical

    • Mixture of primary and secondary pollutants formed under the influence of UV radiation

    • “brown smog”—made up mostly of ozone


Indoor vs outdoor air pollution

Indoor vs. Outdoor Air Pollution

  • Indoor Air Pollution from burning wood, charcoal in open fires or poorly designed stoves; cigarette smoke

    • Carbon monoxide and particulates

  • Impacts high poverty/poor countries

  • Sources include:

    • Tobacco smoke

    • formaldehyde

    • Radon gas

    • Fine particulates

    • Pesticide residues

    • Lead

    • Organic solvents

    • Living organisms (mites, roaches)

    • Mold and fungal spores


Radon gas

Radon Gas

  • Colorless, odorless radioactive gas that is produced by the radioactive decay of uranium-238 (from underground rock)

    • Only problematic in certain areas of the country

  • Can seep through cracks in the foundation and build up to harmful levels in air, or seep into groundwater

  • Damages lung tissue and lead to cancer (second leading cause of lung cancer)

    • Radon-222 decays to Polonium-210 (harmful/carcinogen)


Dealing with air pollution

Dealing with Air Pollution

  • Clean Air Act: set aside air pollution regulations

    • EPA monitors pollutants and sets standards for emissions

  • EPA's mission is to protect human health and the environment. To achieve this mission, EPA implements a variety of programs under the Clean Air Act that focus on:

  • reducing outdoor, or ambient, concentrations of air pollutants that cause smog, haze, acid rain, and other problems;

  • reducing emissions of toxic air pollutants that are known to, or are suspected of, causing cancer or other serious health effects; and

  • phasing out production and use of chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone.

  • These pollutants come from stationary sources (like chemical plants, gas stations, and powerplants) and mobile sources (like cars, trucks, and planes).

  • Buy and sell pollution allotments

  • Prevention in best solution!

    • Improve fuel efficiency standards

    • Alternative energy sources

    • Educate public about pollution


Air quality index

Air Quality Index

  • National Ambient Air Quality Standards

    • EPA sets standards for pollutants harmful to humans or the environment (clean air act)

    • Primary standards protect public health

    • Secondary standards protect public welfare

    • Carbon Monoxide, Lead, Particulates, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide


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