St bonaventure college and high school form 4 biology bridging course 2009 2010
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St. Bonaventure College and High School Form 4 Biology Bridging Course 2009-2010. Cell structure. The structures of animal cells and plant cells . Cell is the basic unit of life. There are more than 200 types of cells in our body.

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St. Bonaventure College and High School Form 4 Biology Bridging Course 2009-2010

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St. Bonaventure College and High SchoolForm 4 BiologyBridging Course 2009-2010

Cell structure

The structures of animal cells and plant cells

  • Cell is the basic unit of life.

  • There are more than 200 types of cells in our body.

  • The shape and size of cells vary, but some features are common to all.

Electron microscope

  • The first electron microscope prototype was built in 1931 by the German engineers

  • Electron microscopes have much greater resolving power than light microscopes that use electromagnetic radiation and can obtain much higher magnifications of up to 2 million times, while the best light microscopes are limited to magnifications of 2000 times.


Electron micrograph

Scanning electron micrograph

Cell membrane

  • It is selectively permeable.

  • It controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell.

  • Different organelles exist within the cytoplasm.


  • Nuclear membrane

    • double layer with many pores

    • pores allow exchange of materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.


  • Chromatin

    • includes coils of DNA and histones


  • Nucleoplasm

    • contains chromatin, nucleolus, proteins, nucleotides.


  • Nucleolus

    • synthesis of ribosomal RNA.


  • The nucleus contains the genetic material DNA, which stores information used to synthesisproteins .

  • The nucleus is surrounded by a double membrane, called the nuclear membrane .

  • Nuclear pores serve as the pathways for the exchange of the materials between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.

  • Nucleoli (singular: nucleolus) are involved in making ribosomes.


  • They are the places where aerobic respiration occurs.

  • Generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a immediate source of energy.

  • Mitochondria have a double membrane.

  • The inner membrane, where most ATP is made, is highly folded. This greatly increases the surface area for ATP production.


  • Chloroplastsare oval-shaped organelles commonly found in plant cells.

  • Chloroplasts, like mitochondria, have a double membrane.

  • Internal membranes contain the green photosynthetic pigmentchlorophyll, which absorbs light energy to make food through the process of photosynthesis.


  • A vacuole is a liquid-filled space within the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane called the tonoplast.

  • Plant cells usually have a large central vacuole, which stores water, other useful substances and wastes.

Cell Wall

  • It consists of cellulose fibres embedded in a polysaccharide matrix.

  • Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls.

  • Protects plant cells and gives them shape.


  • organism

  • electron microscope

  • cell membrane

  • selectively permeable

  • cytoplasm

  • organelles

  • nucleus

  • synthesis

  • proteins

  • reproduction

  • nuclear membrane

  • nuclear pores

  • chromatin

  • chromosomes

  • nucleoli

  • ribosome

  • rough endoplasmic reticulum

  • mitochondria

  • aerobic respiration

  • adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

  • highly folded

  • increases the surface area

  • chloroplasts

  • pigment

  • chlorophyll

  • photosynthesis

  • vacuoles

  • tonoplast

  • cell sap

  • mineral salts

  • wastes

  • cell walls

  • elastic

  • rigid

  • protects

Short questions

  • What is the basic unit of life?

  • How many different types of cells in our body?

  • What is the advantage of electron microscope?

  • List out five organelles which can find in both animal and plant cells.

  • What is the function of cell membrane?

  • Where do the chemical reactions of most cells take place?

  • List out three organelles which can be found in cytoplasm.

  • What is the meaning of selectively permeable?

  • What is the genetic material inside nucleus?

  • How does the nucleus control the activities of cell?

  • What is the function of nucleoli?

  • Where can we find ribosome in cell?

  • Why do scientists call mitochondria as the “powerhouse” of the cell?

  • Why is the inner membrane of mitochondria highly folded?

  • What organelle is more abundant in a very active animal cell?

  • What is the shape of chloroplast?

  • How many organelles have double membrane?

  • What are the functions of vacuole?

  • What is the permeability of cell wall?

  • List out the organelles that can only find in plant cells.

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