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Psychotherapy. Life is not a problem to be solved, but a mystery to be lived. Thomas Merton. Therapy. Lots of different kinds Psychoanalysis Behavior therapies Cognitive therapies Humanistic therapies Group therapies Biomedical therapies. Therapists. Clinical psychologists

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Life is not a problem to be solved, but a mystery to be lived.

Thomas Merton


  • Lots of different kinds

    • Psychoanalysis

    • Behavior therapies

    • Cognitive therapies

    • Humanistic therapies

    • Group therapies

    • Biomedical therapies


  • Clinical psychologists

    • Most are psychologists with a Ph.D. and expertise in research, assessment, and therapy

  • Psychiatrists

    • Physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders

  • Counselors

    • Marriage and family counselors specialize in problems arising from family relations

    • Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims

    • Pastoral counselors


  • Anna O.

    • Catharsis

  • Psychoanalysis

    • Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences – and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight

    • Use has rapidly decreased in recent years

    • Uncover unconscious causes of psychological disorders

      • Free association

      • Resistance

      • Dream

      • Transference

Behavioral therapies
Behavioral Therapies

  • Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors

  • Counterconditioning

    • Procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors

      • Based on classical conditioning

    • Systematic desensitization

      • Associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli

    • Aversion therapy

      • Associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior

      • nausea ---> alcohol

Behavioral therapies1
Behavioral Therapies

  • Token Economy

    • Behavior modification based on operant conditioning principles that rewards desired behaviors

    • Patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats

Cognitive therapies
Cognitive Therapies

  • Teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting

    • Based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

  • Rational Emotive

    • A: activating event

    • B: irrational belief

    • C: emotional consequence

Cognitive therapies1
Cognitive Therapies

  • Beck’s cognitive therapy

    • Developed to treat depression

    • Aim to eliminate exaggerated negative beliefs

  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy

    • A popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)

Humanistic therapy
Humanistic Therapy

  • Client-Centered Therapy

    • Humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers

    • Therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth

    • Reflection of feeling

    • Accurate empathy

  • Active Listening

    • Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies

Group therapies
Group Therapies

  • Family Therapy

    • Treats the family as a system

    • Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members

    • Attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication

Biomedical therapies
Biomedical Therapies

  • Drugs

    • Antianxiety

      • Valium & Xanax

    • Antipsychotics

      • Thorazine & Haldol

    • Antidepressants

      • MAO inhibitors

      • Prozac, Paxil & Zoloft

    • Shock therapy

      • Current of electricity delivered to the brain