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Psychotherapy. Life is not a problem to be solved, but a mystery to be lived. Thomas Merton. Therapy. Lots of different kinds Psychoanalysis Behavior therapies Cognitive therapies Humanistic therapies Group therapies Biomedical therapies. Therapists. Clinical psychologists

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psychotherapy

Psychotherapy

Life is not a problem to be solved, but a mystery to be lived.

Thomas Merton

therapy
Therapy
  • Lots of different kinds
    • Psychoanalysis
    • Behavior therapies
    • Cognitive therapies
    • Humanistic therapies
    • Group therapies
    • Biomedical therapies
therapists
Therapists
  • Clinical psychologists
    • Most are psychologists with a Ph.D. and expertise in research, assessment, and therapy
  • Psychiatrists
    • Physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders
  • Counselors
    • Marriage and family counselors specialize in problems arising from family relations
    • Abuse counselors work with substance abusers and with spouse and child abusers and their victims
    • Pastoral counselors
psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
  • Anna O.
    • Catharsis
  • Psychoanalysis
    • Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences – and the therapist’s interpretations of them – released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
    • Use has rapidly decreased in recent years
    • Uncover unconscious causes of psychological disorders
      • Free association
      • Resistance
      • Dream
      • Transference
behavioral therapies
Behavioral Therapies
  • Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
  • Counterconditioning
    • Procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors
      • Based on classical conditioning
    • Systematic desensitization
      • Associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli
    • Aversion therapy
      • Associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior
      • nausea ---> alcohol
behavioral therapies1
Behavioral Therapies
  • Token Economy
    • Behavior modification based on operant conditioning principles that rewards desired behaviors
    • Patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats
cognitive therapies
Cognitive Therapies
  • Teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting
    • Based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
  • Rational Emotive
    • A: activating event
    • B: irrational belief
    • C: emotional consequence
cognitive therapies1
Cognitive Therapies
  • Beck’s cognitive therapy
    • Developed to treat depression
    • Aim to eliminate exaggerated negative beliefs
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    • A popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
humanistic therapy
Humanistic Therapy
  • Client-Centered Therapy
    • Humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers
    • Therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth
    • Reflection of feeling
    • Accurate empathy
  • Active Listening
    • Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
group therapies
Group Therapies
  • Family Therapy
    • Treats the family as a system
    • Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members
    • Attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improved communication
biomedical therapies
Biomedical Therapies
  • Drugs
    • Antianxiety
      • Valium & Xanax
    • Antipsychotics
      • Thorazine & Haldol
    • Antidepressants
      • MAO inhibitors
      • Prozac, Paxil & Zoloft
    • Shock therapy
      • Current of electricity delivered to the brain
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