Cryptographic security
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Cryptographic Security. Cryptographic Mechanisms. Presentation Outline. Introduction Security goals Symmetric algorithm Asymmetric algorithm Hashing algorithm Digital signature Summary and conclusions Q/A?. Introduction.

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Cryptographic Security

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Cryptographic security

Cryptographic Security

Cryptographic Mechanisms

Mesbah Islam– Operating Systems


Presentation outline

Presentation Outline

Introduction

Security goals

Symmetric algorithm

Asymmetric algorithm

Hashing algorithm

Digital signature

Summary and conclusions

Q/A?

Mesbah Islam– Operating Systems


Introduction

Introduction

Cryptography is a branch of applied mathematics concerned with transformations of data for security.

In cryptography, a sender transforms unprotected information (plaintext) into coded text (ciphertext).

A receiver uses cryptography to either (a) transform the ciphertext back into plaintext, (b) verify the sender’s identity, (c) verify the data’s integrity, or some combination.

Mesbah Islam– Operating Systems


Internet security issues

Internet Security Issues

  • Eavesdropping. Information remains intact, but its privacy is compromised.

  • Tampering. Information in transit is changed or replaced and then sent on to the recipient.

  • Impersonation. Information passes to a person who poses as the intended recipient. Impersonation can take two forms:

  • Spoofing. A person can pretend to be someone else.

  • Misrepresentation. A person or organization can misrepresent itself.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Goals

Goals

  • Applicability of cryptography to support the basic security services

    • privacy/confidentiality -information not disclosed to unauthorized entities

    • integrity -information not altered deliberately or accidentally

    • authentication -validation of identity of source of information

    • non-repudiation -source of information can be objectively established

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Symmetric key encryption for confidentiality

Symmetric Key Encryption for Confidentiality

Ciphertext

EA

DB

M

A

B

01011

M

Sender

Receiver

Eavesdropper

cannot read

  • Sender encrypts the plaintext using public key

  • Receiver decrypts the ciphertext using private key

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Asymmetric key encryption

Asymmetric Key Encryption

Asymmetric (also called Public-key encryption) involves a pair of keys-a public key and a private key-associated with an entity that needs to authenticate its identity electronically or to sign or encrypt data.

Each public key is published, and the corresponding private key is kept secret.

The sender encrypts the data with the receiver’s public key, and the receiver decrypts the ciphertext message with its own private key.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Asymmetric key encryption contd

Asymmetric Key Encryption (contd.)

Ciphertext

EB

DB

M

A

B

01011

M

Sender

Receiver

Eavesdropper

cannot read

  • Sender encrypts the plaintext using receiver’s public key

  • Receiver decrypts the ciphertext using receiver’s

  • private key

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Asymmetric key encryption contd1

Asymmetric Key Encryption (contd.)

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Compared with symmetric-key encryption, public-key encryption requires more computation and is therefore not always appropriate for large amounts of data.

However, it's possible to use public-key encryption to send a symmetric key.


Secure hashing algorithm

Secure Hashing Algorithm

The secure hash function takes a stream of data and reduces it to a fixed size through a one-way mathematical function.

The result is called a message digest and can be thought of as a fingerprint of the data.

The message digest can be reproduced by any party with the same stream of data, but it is virtually impossible to create a different stream of data that produces the same message digest.

A message digest can be used to provide integrity.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Secure hashing algorithm contd

Secure Hashing Algorithm (contd.)

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Secure hashing algorithm contd1

Secure Hashing Algorithm (contd.)

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Secure hashing algorithm contd2

Secure Hashing Algorithm (contd.)

  • Digests are

    • Fixed length

    • Irreversible

    • Unique

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Digital signature

Digital Signature

Digital signatures employ a type of asymmetric cryptography.

For messages sent through a non-secure channel, a properly implemented digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender.

Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects; properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type.

Digital signatures can also provide non-repudiating, meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message, while also claiming their private key remains secret.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Digital signature contd

Digital Signature (contd.)

Enc(Bpub(Apriv(M)))

Dec(Apub(Bpriv(C)))

M

A

B

M

Receiver

Sender

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Summary and conclusions

Summary and Conclusions

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


Cryptographic security

??

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems


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