- 56 Views
- Uploaded on
- Presentation posted in: General

Cryptographic Security

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Cryptographic Security

Cryptographic Mechanisms

Mesbah Islam– Operating Systems

Introduction

Security goals

Symmetric algorithm

Asymmetric algorithm

Hashing algorithm

Digital signature

Summary and conclusions

Q/A?

Mesbah Islam– Operating Systems

Cryptography is a branch of applied mathematics concerned with transformations of data for security.

In cryptography, a sender transforms unprotected information (plaintext) into coded text (ciphertext).

A receiver uses cryptography to either (a) transform the ciphertext back into plaintext, (b) verify the sender’s identity, (c) verify the data’s integrity, or some combination.

Mesbah Islam– Operating Systems

- Eavesdropping. Information remains intact, but its privacy is compromised.
- Tampering. Information in transit is changed or replaced and then sent on to the recipient.
- Impersonation. Information passes to a person who poses as the intended recipient. Impersonation can take two forms:
- Spoofing. A person can pretend to be someone else.
- Misrepresentation. A person or organization can misrepresent itself.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

- Applicability of cryptography to support the basic security services
- privacy/confidentiality -information not disclosed to unauthorized entities
- integrity -information not altered deliberately or accidentally
- authentication -validation of identity of source of information
- non-repudiation -source of information can be objectively established

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Ciphertext

EA

DB

M

A

B

01011

M

Sender

Receiver

Eavesdropper

cannot read

- Sender encrypts the plaintext using public key
- Receiver decrypts the ciphertext using private key

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Asymmetric (also called Public-key encryption) involves a pair of keys-a public key and a private key-associated with an entity that needs to authenticate its identity electronically or to sign or encrypt data.

Each public key is published, and the corresponding private key is kept secret.

The sender encrypts the data with the receiver’s public key, and the receiver decrypts the ciphertext message with its own private key.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Ciphertext

EB

DB

M

A

B

01011

M

Sender

Receiver

Eavesdropper

cannot read

- Sender encrypts the plaintext using receiver’s public key
- Receiver decrypts the ciphertext using receiver’s
- private key

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Compared with symmetric-key encryption, public-key encryption requires more computation and is therefore not always appropriate for large amounts of data.

However, it's possible to use public-key encryption to send a symmetric key.

The secure hash function takes a stream of data and reduces it to a fixed size through a one-way mathematical function.

The result is called a message digest and can be thought of as a fingerprint of the data.

The message digest can be reproduced by any party with the same stream of data, but it is virtually impossible to create a different stream of data that produces the same message digest.

A message digest can be used to provide integrity.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

- Digests are
- Fixed length
- Irreversible
- Unique

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Digital signatures employ a type of asymmetric cryptography.

For messages sent through a non-secure channel, a properly implemented digital signature gives the receiver reason to believe the message was sent by the claimed sender.

Digital signatures are equivalent to traditional handwritten signatures in many respects; properly implemented digital signatures are more difficult to forge than the handwritten type.

Digital signatures can also provide non-repudiating, meaning that the signer cannot successfully claim they did not sign a message, while also claiming their private key remains secret.

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Enc(Bpub(Apriv(M)))

Dec(Apub(Bpriv(C)))

M

A

B

M

Receiver

Sender

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems

??

Mesbah Islam– CS5204 – Operating Systems