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Development. What makes me the person i am? Was I born this way? Will I stay this way? What will change as I age? Chapter 5 pages 156-189. Development. Development is a progressive series of changes, which occur at particular points during a lifespan.

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What makes me the person i am?

Was I born this way?

Will I stay this way?

What will change as I age?

Chapter 5 pages 156-189



  • Development is a progressive series of changes, which occur at particular points during a lifespan.

  • A state in which things are improving , changing or growing.

  • Studying this concept is called developmental

    psychology. This looks at what makes us all similar and of course things that make us unique.


Are the qualities and behaviours that define us innate (born with them) or do we acquire them throughout our life?

What do you think..........


Nature vs Nurture


Nature: characteristics which are inherited from your parents

Eg: eye colour, hair colour, blood type, bone structure

Nurture: Your environment and/or personal experiences define who you are as a person.

Eg: nutritional intake, vocabulary levels.

Which has a greater influence on your development?


Do learning

activity 5.3

pg 161

Nature vs nurture video

Nature vs Nurture Video

  • Nature vs nurture debate

  • Twins separated at birth.


  • Do you remember what you looked like last year?

  • Do you remember how you felt last year?

  • In what ways are you different now?



  • Maturation: “matured” This is the term given to how you have changed. It is the biological growth process that occurs across the lifespan. Eg. Crawling to walking to running

  • Maturation is very important as it signals when we are physically ready to achieve certain milestones. Eg. Before you can walk certain muscles, bones and joints need to be developed.

  • Reaching these milestones at certain ages is known as developmental norms.

  • Developmental norms: this is a guide to the general timeframe of when humans will reach different milestones in their development.

    Why are developmental norms necessary??

Developmental norms

Developmental norms.

  • Developmental norms are necessary because it can alert parents to an abnormality in their child’s development


  • Development encompasses more than just maturation. Psychological development includes concepts such as;

    -Cognitive (how we think and learn)

    -Motor (our physical skills and development)

    -Behavioural (how we act)

    -Emotional and social changes (interpersonal relationships)

    Over a lifespan all of these will develop.

Terms you need to know

Terms you need to know.

  • Foetus: prior to birth

  • Neonate: one month after birth

  • Infant: one month old and onwards.

Neonate infancy

Neonate/ Infancy

Development of perceptual abilities

  • Adaptive reflexes (innate and pre-wired abilities)

  • occur as a response to external stimuli

  • Aides their survival (rooting reflex: baby turns head when its cheek is brushed)

  • Grasp relfex, babinski reflex, moro reflex

  • Short sighted (20-40cm)

  • Most infants can perceive depth as soon as they start to crawl. (Gibson and Walk’s visual cliff experiment) 5:20

Neonate infancy1

Neonate/ Infancy

Development of cognitive abilities (learning, thinking and memory)

  • As the infant grows they are able to better organise the sensations bombarding them from the outside world, they begin to understand them and how to respond to them.

  • When infant starts to walk they are known as a toddler until they are around 3yrs.



  • Large portion of physical, cognitive and psychosocial development happens between the ages of 3-11

  • Early childhood (3-6yrs)

    -More active

    -Sophisticated thinking

  • Middle childhood (6-11yrs)

    -Stronger and more agile (able to move easily)

    -Beginning of puberty towards the end of this stage



  • Occurs between the ages of 11-20.

  • Thinking is refined. Can think abstractly.

  • Higher order thinking, form your own opinions

  • Openness (open to new or unfamiliar ideas, behaviours, experiences) increases in both boys and girls

  • Inflated sense of self worth (personal fable)

  • “Nothing can harm me” thinking which leads to risk taking behaviours, drinking, drugs..

  • Active hormones

Early adulthood

Early Adulthood

  • Stage occurs between the ages of 20-40

  • Physical condition peaks at the start of this stage the declines towards the end.

  • Memory declines at age 30.

  • Make important life decisions

  • Personality is stable after 30.

  • Agreeableness (live and work with people in harmony, no tensions) increased during adulthood.

  • Fluid intelligence (analysis and information processing skills and working memory’s capacity) peaks during this stage.

Middle age

Middle Age

  • His stage occurs between the ages of 40-65.

  • Visible signs of aging appear like lines and wrinkles and age spots.

  • Grey hair and less saliva

  • Fitness, strength and flexibility decline.

  • Menopause occurs in women aged between 48-55.

  • Taste and touch sensations decline

  • Weight gain

  • Bone density declines

Old age

Old Age

  • Stage occurs from 65 yr onwards

  • All 5 senses become less sensitive

  • Body may decline due to

    illness or injury.

  • Memory loss

  • Depression

  • Retirement

  • Loss of a spouse



Learning Activities

  • 5.8 questions 1-4

  • 5.10 questions 2,3,4

  • 5.12 question 1 or 2

  • 5.13 question 2 and 3

  • 5.14 question 1 and 3

  • 5.15 question 1 and 4

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