In situ radio frequency heating isrfh at a former service station in kent
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In Situ Radio Frequency Heating (ISRFH) at a Former Service Station in Kent. Contaminated Land and Brownfield Remediation London 22 September 2009 Giacomo Maini, BSc, PhD Managing Director Ecologia Environmental Solutions Ltd. Ecologia. We are a technical remediation contractor

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In Situ Radio Frequency Heating (ISRFH) at a Former Service Station in Kent.

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In Situ Radio Frequency Heating (ISRFH) at a Former Service Station in Kent.

Contaminated Land and Brownfield Remediation

London

22 September 2009

Giacomo Maini, BSc, PhD

Managing Director

Ecologia Environmental Solutions Ltd


Ecologia

  • We are a technical remediation contractor

  • We are a UK company

  • Offices in Kent, Devon, Staffordshire and Bologna

  • Our workshops are at our headquarters in Kent


RF Technology

  • Background of the RF technology

    • Partnership with Hemholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ in Germany

    • Trial tests performed at the Kent Science Park (Sittingbourne) on pristine soils

    • Commercial project in Watford

    • Trial test at former petrol station in Kent owned by Total UK

    • CL:AIRE Technology Development Programme (TDP) 28

    • Covered by joint (Ecologia-UFZ) European Patent


Principle of the RF Technology


Principle of the RF Technology

Electromagnetic field emitted into the soil

Polar Molecules excited by the electromagnetic field

Heat generated

Increase rate of volatilisation

Reduction in time required for SVE


Elements of the RF system

  • RF Generator

  • Matchbox

  • Electrodes

  • Shielding

  • Sensors

  • Laser

  • Overall system

Fiber optic

Thermo-couple


Health and Safety

  • No existing standard in UK

  • Guideline International Committee on No-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)

    • Maximum level


Manston field trial

  • Soil – Chalk

  • Groundwater table – approx. 55 m bgl

  • Type of Contamination – BTEX and light (<C8) to medium molecular weight (>C12-C16) hydrocarbons

  • Depth of contamination – In the unsaturated soil mostly between 3 to 10 m bgl.


Manston field trial 3D


The Field Trial Set Up


Contaminant Concentration T=0


Operation Methodology


Monitoring Methodology

  • Extracted VOC measured on line using a Total Volatile Organic Sensor (TVOC)

  • TENAX tubes followed by GC-MS at set intervals.

  • PID

  • Airflow

  • Soil and air temperature


TVOC vs. TENAX

Conversion factor

1.74


Results – Temperature


Extraction Rates vs. Temperature


Extraction Rates vs. Temperature


Cumulative VOCs Removal vs. Temperature


Cumulative VOCs Removal


Soil Validation – TPH


Observations

  • Volatile compounds (BTEX and TPH >C8–C10) >90% - 99% reduction).

  • Lower removal was measured near extraction well SVE 2 suggesting that the remediation process had not been fully completed at the end of the trial.

  • Higher molecular weight hydrocarbons (TPH fraction >C10-C16) reduced approx 80% on average). Some concentration build up near the SVE wells where soil temperature is likely to be lower.

  • TPH fractions >C16-C35 lower initial concentration but showed similar behaviour as semi-volatile fractions.

  • The extent of the reduction observed for the s-VOC (approx 80%) cannot be solely attributed to analytical error.

  • Biodegradation and in-situ hydrolysis were considered as two potential explanations for such reduction.


Mass Balance


Energy Requirements

kWh cost set @ £0.12


Cooling Rate SVE Only

°C/Day = 0.374


Energy Input to Remove Same Mass of Contaminant (945 kg)


Observations

  • ISRFH technology would reduce:

  • Time required for remediation by 86% (i.e.7 fold 46 days vs. 325 day)

  • Energy input by 42% when compared to a traditional SVE with no heating.


Estimated costs (based on 480 m3 of soil treated)

  • ISRFH (10 weeks treatment) – inclusive of CAPEX depreciation, maintenance monitoring, energy - £194/m3 or £96/tonne (Chalk density = 2.022 g/cm3).

    Note:Energy cost to achieve average 50°C in soil approx 20% of the remediation costs.

  • Excavation and disposal to landfill as hazardous waste (5 weeks operation) - inclusive of sheetpiling, backfilling and site set up -£398/m3 or £197/tonne


Additional Considerations

  • ISRFH treatment vs. traditional in-situ technologies–

    • Speed of the ISRFH technology in removing volatile contaminants

    • Can SVE alone actually remove the contaminants?


Conclusions

ISRFH significantly improves the removal rate of VOCs and s-VOC from the unsaturated Chalk with a marked reduction in treatment times without entailing excessive energy costs


Thank You


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