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WELCOME. Atharva College of Engineering Mumbai. ATHARVA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. Ground-Station Team. Project Guide : Prof. Mrs. Archana Chaudhari Student Members: Aniruddha Khadye Anuj Tiwari Divya Acharya Nikhil Joshi Nirali Khandhar Saurabh Sanghai Swarnkamal Singh Parmar

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Atharva College of Engineering

Mumbai

ATHARVA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


Ground-Station Team

Project Guide:

Prof. Mrs. ArchanaChaudhari

Student Members:

Aniruddha Khadye

Anuj Tiwari

DivyaAcharya

Nikhil Joshi

NiraliKhandhar

Saurabh Sanghai

Swarnkamal Singh Parmar

Viral Shah


Project Objectives

  • To setup an autonomous Ground Station at ACE

  • To retrieve TEC data operating on 437 MHz and 145 MHz

  • To receive Satellite Beacon on 145 MHz using VHF receiver.

  • To receive Satellite Telemetry data on 437Mhz using OOK UHF receiver

  • To log and analyze the data received

  • Student Outreach Program


ACE Ground Station Break Up

Our Ground-Station consists of 3 main parts:

  • Antenna Array

  • Rotor Mechanism

  • Processing Circuit


Antenna

DESIGN:

  • Parameters obtained from 4nec2 software.

  • Design was for 5 element 145 MHz Yagi-Uda antenna is shown.

  • 5 elements Yagi-Uda was selected for:

  • Better directivity

  • Better sensitivity

  • Low Bandwidth


FABRICATION:

  • Antenna parameters obtained from NEC aren’t always practically realisable.

  • Values had to be rounded up to achievable margin and the resultant design was again simulated on the software.

  • Best possible parameters were selected based upon their practicality as well as fulfillment of specified criterion.



Balun

  • Balun is also known as Quarter Wave Transformer.

  • It is used for impedance matching.

  • Length of balun is 1\4th of wavelength.

  • Practically, this value has to divided by velocity factor of the medium so as to account for different velocity of signal in different medium.


Dipole Bending

  • Plane of polarization should be maintained while folding dipoles.

  • The distance between the folds of the dipoles have to be maintained.

  • For 437MHZ, a 7mm thick mild steel former was used.

  • For 145 MHz a 2 cm diameter wrought iron former was used.

  • Both these formers were customized in the ACE workshop.


Why LMR 400?

LMR 400

RG 214

Attenuation

8.57 dB/100m at 145 MHz

15.95 dB/100m at 437 MHz

Max Operating Temperature: 75 ˚C

Cost: INR 500/m

  • Attenuation:

    • 5 dB/100m at 145 MHz

    • 8.9 dB/100m at 437 MHz

  • Max Operating temperature: 85 ˚C

  • Cost: INR 85/m


Why Antenna Rotator?

  • Dynamic Az/El trackingis a necessity for precision in readings and to avoid errors.

  • Manual tracking is not practical given the short Satellite pass duration , strength of signal being received & weight of antenna setup.

  • Though designing a rotor system is an option but you will need to take care of many factors

    • Water Proofing Motor framing

    • Wiring & Insulation

    • Wind load Considerations

    • Most importantly ACCURACY!!

4-Crossed Yagi-Uda Rotator Setup

  • Options Available

    • Yaesu G5500

    • Hygain

    • Kenpro


Good option : YaesuG-5500

  • Specifications

  • Rotation Range:

    • Elevation: 180°0

    • Azimuth: 450°

  • Maximum Vertical Load

    • :Elevation: 30 kg or less

    • Azimuth:. (200 kg) or less

  • Rotation Time (Non Loaded)

    • :Elevation (180°): 67 sec at 60 Hz

    • Azimuth (360°): 58 sec at 60 Hz

  • Comes with a controller which helps in interfacing with a PC based tracking software


  • RCI-SE Board

    • Provides efficient control in both Azimuth and Elevation Planes

    • Compatible with most of the Antenna rotators available

    • This controller board takes care of all the Talking ! (Interfacing )between the PC –Software (Orbitron/Satscape ) and Antenna rotator(Yaesu G5500)

    • 5 relays (Azimuth and Elevation Control)

      • Left

      • Right

      • Up

      • Down

      • AUX, Brake or Speed control.

    RCI-SE Controller

    • Specifications:

    • 5 Relays

    • 2 x 8 Bit ADCs

    • LPT Interface Port


    Wouxunvs ADF

    WOUXUN- KGUVD1P

    ADF 7020

    Sensitivity upto -118 dBm

    No inbuilt LNA or BFO

    VFO is not Field Programmable.

    Delicate , requires ESD protection.

    Powered by power supply.

    External peripheral components required.

    No license required.

    • Sensitivity upto -125 dBm

    • Inbuilt LNA & BFO.

    • Field Programmable VFO to offset satellite Doppler shift.

    • Rugged and Robust.

    • Powered by Li-ion battery.

    • Plug and play device.

    • Requires operating license



    LNA ZX 60 33 LN+

    • Frequency 50- 3000Mhz

    • Noise figure; 1.1dB

    • Gain 20.5 dB

    • i/p VSWR 2:1

    • o/p VSWR 1.6:1

    • DC Supply Voltage 5V

    • Supply Current 70mA

    • Operating Temperature -40’C to 85’C


    AD 8302

    • Polarization Measurement Kit (Phase and Gain Detector)

    • 2 Inputs from 1 Crossed Yagi

    • 2 Outputs to be given to µController


    CC 1020

    • It is industrial grade Trans- receiver IC.

    • It is operational over a frequency band of 405MHz to 470 MHz and is tunable.

    • It’s power requirements are low (-118dbm) Signal received at Ground-station would be -110dbm.

    • It supports packet data transmission.

    • Maximum bit rate is 156.2 kbps which is much higher than our requirements.


    Satellite Tracking Software

    SATSCAPE:

    • Inbuilt WISP – DDE protocol to interface with compatible rotor system. (Yeasu G-5500)

    • Real time Tracking .

    • Built in Voice Alerts.

    • Wide range of satellites which can be tracked.

    • 3-D Graphic User Interface

    • It’s a FREEWARE !


    Objectives Achieved

    • Crossed Yagi antenna successfully designed, fabricated & characterized.

    • Power link budget implemented.

    • CC 1020 and AD 8302 ordered and procured.

    • Ground-Station Control Room set up.

    • Softwares like 4NEC2, Solid Works, Satscape, Smart RF Studio were studied and used.


    Experiments Conducted

    • AX.25 protocol studied using Slow Scan TV on commercial UHF Band .

    • Morse Code transmission/reception.

    • Radio Telescope was setup to monitor solar radiations.

    • Tracked ISS.

    • Radio propagation conditions were studied at the control room by setting up VHF/UHF monitoring station.


    Student Outreach Program

    ACE

    • Blog and Facebook profile was created to reach out to the students & interested people.

    • Blog:

      http://acegroundstation.blogspot.com/

    • Facebook Profile Handle:

      Ace Satellite Ground-Station

    • Student Interactive Session was conducted.



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