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الطفرات الجينية PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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الطفرات الجينية. ( الطفرات الجينية :- 1- الجينات تنتقل من الاباء الى الابناء مع انتقال الكروموسومات 2- ان لكل جين موضع ثابت في احد الكروموسومات 3- الجينات تتكون من الحمض النووي دنا

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الطفرات الجينية

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(

:-

1-

2-

3-

4-

5-

6- Gene mutaions.

: Mutants Mutagenesis


( )

:

:-

: Spontaneousmutations (

) 10-8 10-10 , 10-7 10-9

10-5 10-8 10 -4 10-6

Mutagens .


:

1- Somatic mutaions

_ :-

1-

2-

3-

4- : .

:-

1- Germinal mutations

2- .

3- .


:

Forward mutation

Reversemutation ( ) Back mutation .

mutationsSuppressor 1- : .

2- : ,


:

1- Lethal mutations .

2- Conditional lethal mutations Autotrophuc mutants :

:

: .


( )

Substitutuons mutations

Frameghiftmutaions ( ) Transition mutations ( ) Transversion mutations .


:

- :

- :

3


( )

:

Nonsense mutations ( ) Missensemutations

UAA UAG UGA : Neutral mutations . AAA AGA Silent mutations AAA AGG ( ) ( ) ( )


)


:

.

:

.

- :

.


:

:

1- .

2- .

3- .


:-

:

1- .

2- .

Tautomeric shift .

( ) Depurination Deamination .


: -

.

: :

1- .

2- ( ) Free radicals

3-

4- Pyrimidinedimers .


: :

Base analogs Base modifying agents ( )

Interealating agents .

: :

1-

2- Retroviruses

3- Adenoviruses .

4- Oncogene .


5-

6- Papillonomas

Mu

10-6 10 -7 ( ) .


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