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To get new picture tubes from old ones. Tv glass recycling in Europe - description of the situation and the possibilities. Presentation by: Dr. Eckart Döring Manager Batch Supply Site Services Mainz Schott Glas, Mainz, Germany [email protected] The CRT consists of many components.

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To get new picture tubes from old ones

To get new picture tubes from old ones


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Tv glass recycling in Europe - description of the situation and the possibilities.

Presentation by:

Dr. Eckart Döring

Manager Batch Supply

Site Services Mainz

Schott Glas, Mainz, Germany

[email protected]


To get new picture tubes from old ones

The CRT consists of many components

Frit

Rimband

Cone glass

Panel glass

Metal parts

- Deflection unit

- Rimband

- Mask

- Magnetic shield

- Anode, getter

- 4 Pins in the panel glass

Magnetic

shield

Front plate

coating

Anode

Metal/Ceramic parts

- Electron gun

Deflection

Unit

Front plate

coating

Other substances

- Front plate coating

- Plastic foil

- Ironoxid/graphite

coating on cone glass

Neck

Electron beam

Glass

- Cone glass, frit and neck

(contain high amounts of lead)

- Panel glass

Electron gun


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Physical Properties of Color CRT Glass


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Range of chemical compositions of color CRT glass


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Al2O3

Na2O

K2O

BaO

SrO

CaO

MgO

Sb2O3

%SiO2 (balance)

PbO

Changes of funnel glass compositions in Europe

12,00

70,00

60,00

10,00

50,00

8,00

40,00

wt %

wt % PbO, SiO2

6,00

30,00

4,00

20,00

2,00

10,00

0,00

0,00

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

Year of Production


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Changes of panel glass compositions in Europe


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Distribution of EoL-glass amounts throughout

Europe in 2000

UK 22,8%

Germany 22,3%France 18,3%

Italy 12,4%

Spain 8,9%

The Netherlands 4,1% Sweden 2,1%

Belgium 2,0%

Portugal 2,0%

Austria 1,9%

Denmark 1,7%

Finland 1,5%

Total: 100,0%

About 1 Mio tons/year in Europe


Present situation of crt recycling in the countries of the european community

Present Situation of CRT- Recycling in the countries of the European community

Scandinavia and BENELUX

  • High public awareness

  • Collection system organized

  • Financing system clear

  • Funnel glass is being recycled in the closed cycle (SCHOTT GLAS)

  • Panel glass will be upgraded for the reuse in the open and closed cycle in 2002

  • Whole CRTs are recycled as mixed cullets (BENELUX)


Present situation of crt recycling in the countries of the european community1

Present Situation of CRT- Recycling in the countries of the European community

Germany

  • Moderate public awareness

  • Collection system organized

  • Financing via waste tax

  • The amounts are not registrated

  • Only some amounts of funnel, panel and mixed glass are recycled in the closed loop (SCHOTT GLAS)

  • High amounts of crts are still being landfilled

  • Two upgrading plant are running since 1997 and 2000


Present situation of crt recycling in the countries of the european community2

Present Situation of CRT- Recycling in the countries of the European community

United Kingdom

  • Very low public awareness

  • Now collection system for crts until now

  • Financing not clear

  • Nearly all of the crt glass is being landfilled without any treatment

  • There are some very promising local initiatives in contact with SCHOTT

  • Although there are high amounts of glass, no upgrading plant is established


Present situation of crt recycling in the countries of the european community3

Present Situation of CRT- Recycling in the countries of the European community

France, Spain, Portugal, Italy

  • Increasing public awareness

  • Only local collection for crts

  • Financing not clear

  • The government is looking for solutions

  • Nearly all of the crt glass is being landfilled

  • There are some local initiatives in contact with SCHOTT

  • Small amounts of glass are recycled via SCHOTT(France)

  • Transportation is a big cost factor for these countries


Present situation of crt recycling in the countries of the european community4

Present Situation of CRT- Recycling in the countries of the European community

Austria, Switzerland (not EU)

  • High public awareness

  • Collection organized

  • Financing system working

  • The closed loop recycling is favorized by the austrian environmental ministry

  • Crts are integrated into the network by cooperating companies

  • The mixing of lead containing crt glass into ceramic raw materials is still agreed in switzerland


How does the disposal of used crt glass currently look like

How does the disposal of used CRT-glasscurrently look like ?

?


The usual disposal of used crt glass today

  • Disposal of the whole TV-Sets

  • Reuse in eastern Europe and beyond

  • Disposal of the glass with or without active layers

  • Road construction

  • Slag former in lead and non-iron production

  • Use of lead containing mixed glass in the ceramic industry

  • ...

  • ...

  • Closed loop recycling in TV-glass production

The usual disposal of used CRT-glass today


What are the consequences of today s practice

  • Glass containing high amounts of lead pollutes the environment

  • The exhaust of container glass melts gets contaminated with lead and the filters cannot handle this

  • The container glass gets contaminated with lead

  • Price pressure for higher sophisticated recycling

  • Smaller amounts of glass for closed loop recycling

  • ...........

What are the consequences of today'spractice ?


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Large amounts of CRT-glass get disposed by electric waste

recyclers and the glass is not available as raw material for Schott

CRT-Glass-

Manufacturer

Consumer

Place of

collection

municipal/private

Electronic

Waste

Recycler

CRT

Dismantler

Glass-

Recycler

Other Disposal

e.g. landfill

eastern Europe

Stores

Electronic

goods

dealerships

TV/PC-Monitor

Manufacturer

(OEM)

CRT-

Manufacturer

Quelle: Teamrecherche, -einschätzung


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Schott reduces the bottle necks in the product life cycle by active acquisition to enable economical closed and open loop recycling.

CRT

Dismantler

Glass

Recycler

Other

Disposal

Acquisition Schott

CRT-Glass

Manufacturer

Consumer

Place of

collection

municipal/private

Electronic Waste

Recycler

Stores

Electronic

goods

dealerships

TV/ PC-Monitor

Manufacturer

(OEM)

CRT-

Manufacturer

Quelle: Teameinschätzung


To get new picture tubes from old ones

CRTs do not consist of glass only...

...and have in addition to be transported and stored in a save, environmental friendly and economical manner.


To get new picture tubes from old ones

The first look at some End-of-Life CRT deliveries shows

mainly metal.

This happens due to

compacting the CRT

inside the container.

This needs to be

avoided. The recycler

has than the problemof large amounts

of fine refraction's of

glass in the sludge.

This cannot be

separated and there-

fore leads to higher

disposal cost of the

sludge.


First layer of the upgrading process

Remove back side of

case, ventilate CRT,

removal of cables,

speakers, circuit boards,

dismantle deflection unit, remove electron gun

Loosen CRT,

remove CRT

and removal

of attached

silicon and

rubber

Rimband,

mask,

anode,

getter

inside

coatings

First layer of the upgrading process

Panel glass without

funnel glass, frit, pins

and inside coatings

Clean

separation of

panel and

funnel

Complete

TV-sets and

monitors

CRT with

rimband,

inside

coatings

and metal

parts

Funnel glass with

ironoxide/graphite coating

anode, parts of panel-

glass and frit

Plastics

circuit

boards,

electronic

components

wood,

plastic

Metal

Processing unit

for CRT-mix glass

and funnel glass

Cable, wire,

metal

Electron gun

Rubber,

Silicon

CRT-mix glass

with metals


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Process

panel glass

Smelting

Process to generate raw material (cullet) from End-of-Life CRT (second layer)

whole,

ventilated

CRT

separation,

remove

metals

Iron,

steel

CRT cullet

uncleaned

Iron, steel separation

Iron, steel

separation

Cleaning e.g. with closed water cycle

2nd cleaning with closed water cycle

Crushing

Sorting

Funnel glass

uncleaned

Grading

Homo-

genize

Analysis

Funnel or

mix-glass

cleaned

Raw material,

funnel or

mix glass

Sludge

Foreign matter

Grafik by UFT-4/Obl: Verfahrensfließbild_d.ppt; 2001/08/17

Landfill, reuse, stowing


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Ways of ecological use of End-of-Life CRT glass

qClosed loop recycling

qOpen loop recycling


Quality aspects for the use of end of life crt glass in the closed loop

  • Clear grades of glass (funnel-, panel-, mix-glass)

  • Homogenity

  • Grainsize

  • No foreign matter, metals, plastic, wood

  • Coatings removed

Closed loop recycling

Quality aspects for the use of End-of-Life CRT glass in the closed loop

To hold the specifications complex processing is necessary


Ready for use secondary raw material

Ready for use: secondary raw material !


Closed loop recycling

  • Usable glasses:

    • funnel glass

    • mix from funnel and panel glass

    • neck glass

    • panel glass

Closed loop recycling

  • The use of End-of-Life funnel and mix glass in the funnel glass melt is standard procedure

  • The use of End-of-Life panel glass in the panel glass melt is turning from tests to continous operation


New products partly made from old crts

New products, partly made from old CRTs


Closed loop recycling in the glass melt at schott glas mainz and stvg valassk mez r c cz

Closed loop recycling

Closed-Loop-Recycling in the glass melt at SCHOTT GLAS, Mainz and STVG, Valasské Mezírící (CZ)

How much can be utilized ?

SCHOTT GLAS, MainzMix glassmax. 12.000 tons/yearFunnel glass max. 30.000 tons/yearPanel glass min. 15000 tons/year

STVG, Valasské Mezírící (CZ)Mix glass max.6.000 tons/yearFunnel glassmax.20.000 tons/year


To get new picture tubes from old ones

Closed loop recycling

Why is the amount of End-of-Life funnel glass limited to approx. 55 % of the total melting capacity of the funnel tank?

qTo compensate missing components in the secondary raw material a certain amount of "fresh" raw materials is necessary

qCullets and dust from production have to be put into the melt also.

Primary raw materials

Cullets from production

Exhaust dust

Secondary raw materials(EoL CRT glass)


Where is the limit for the reuse of panel glass in the closed cycle panel glass production and why

Closed loop recycling

Where is the limit for the reuse of panel glass in the closed cycle (panel glass production) and why?

qTo compensate missing components in the secondary raw material a certain amount of "fresh" raw materials is necessary

qCullets from production have to be put into the melt also.

qThe optical parameters have to be kept in tolerance !

We know now that 10% of the melting capacity can be replaced by EoL panel glass

And we know, that this is not the end !

?


The amounts of reused eol crt glass show a strong increase

The amounts of reused EoL-CRT glass show a strong increase

>10000 t

9245 t

Reused EoL cullets (SCHOTT GLAS)

3240 t

3240 t

290 t

290 t

160 t

160 t

97/98

98/99

Year

99/00

00/01

01/02


Major impediments to the grows of closed loop recycling of end of life crt glass

Closed loop recycling

Major impediments to the grows of closed loop recycling of End-of-Life CRT glass

There are cheaper ways of downcycling, landfilling and so on, despite all factual concerns these are still legal and underlie no limits.

The definition of the legal ways of disposal and downcycling still does not consider today's technical possibilities of closed loop recycling.

Logistical system to register the offered amount and missing knowledge about the possibilities.

Poor technologies to separate End-of-Life CRT.

Some recyclers use the closed loop recycling only for a small portion (alibi) of the collected End-of-Life CRT and dispose the major part the cheap way.


Open loop recycling

  • Panel glass, which amounts to 2/3 of the glass in aCRT has to be utilized in a ecological and economicalway

  • Following uses are being tested and show potential:

    • Insulation fiber

    • Substitute for primary raw material in the ceramics industry

    • Enamel, glazes

    • Decorative wall tiles

Open loop recycling

Lead-free End-of-Life panel glass is an excellent choice to use for open loop recycling

Only lead-free cullets can be used for open loop recycling !


Many thanks for your attention

Many thanks for your attention!

For further questions you can contact :

Dr. Eckart DöringPhone +49 6131/66-21 87, Fax +49 6131/66-20 73,

Mobile +49 171/2 20 94 17

e-mail: [email protected]

Thomas Oberle Phone +49 6131/66-38 34, Fax +49 6131/66-19 65,

Mobile +49 171/8 64 39 80

e-mail: [email protected]


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