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Leading a Team from a Functional Behavioral Assessment to a Behavior Support Plan. Rob Horner, Cindy Anderson and Anne Todd University of Oregon TA-Center on Positive Behavior Support www.pbis.org. Assumptions and Objectives. Assumptions You are already implementing School-wide PBIS

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Leading a team from a functional behavioral assessment to a behavior support plan

Leading a Team from a Functional Behavioral Assessment to a Behavior Support Plan

Rob Horner, Cindy Anderson and Anne Todd

University of Oregon

TA-Center on Positive Behavior Support

www.pbis.org


Assumptions and objectives
Assumptions and Objectives

  • Assumptions

    • You are already implementing School-wide PBIS

    • You already conduct functional behavioral assessments

    • You are already working with teams to build behavior support plans for individual students.

  • Objectives

    • Define a process for moving from assessment to behavior support plan.

    • Start with FBA -> Frame the Challenge -> Select Options


Main messages
Main Messages

  • Know the “foundation” information BEFORE building a plan:

    • What, Where, When, Who, Why

    • For complex plans build information about social, family, medical and contextual issues that may be influencing behavior.

  • Make the plan fit the student and the context

    • Efficient, tailored support

  • Behavior support has levels of complexity: Typical school personnel can do a lot.

    • You can do this.

    • … but you also need to know when to ask for more help.

  • Implement individual behavior support plans within school-wide systems.


  • School-Wide

    Positive Behavior

    Support

    Tertiary Prevention:

    Specialized

    Individualized

    Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

    ~5%

    Secondary Prevention:

    Specialized Group

    Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

    Primary Prevention:

    School-/Classroom-

    Wide Systems for

    All Students,

    Staff, & Settings

    ~15%

    ~80% of Students


    A context for pbs
    A Context for PBS

    • Behavior support is the redesign of environments, not the redesign of individuals

    • Positive Behavior Support plans define changes in the behavior of those who will implement the plan.

      • A behavior support plan describes what we will do differently.


    Behavior support elements
    Behavior Support Elements

    *Team

    *Specialist

    Problem Behavior

    *Hypothesis statement

    *Competing Behavior Analysis

    *Contextual Fit

    Functional Assessment

    *Implementation Plan

    Content of Support Plan

    Fidelity of Implementation

    *Technical Adequacy

    * Strengths

    * Preferences

    * Lifestyle vision

    Impact on Behavior and Lifestyle


    Behavior support elements1
    Behavior Support Elements

    *Team

    *Specialist

    Problem Behavior

    *Hypothesis statement

    *Competing Behavior Analysis

    *Contextual Fit

    Functional Assessment

    *Implementation Plan

    Content of Support Plan

    Fidelity of Implementation

    *Technical Adequacy

    * Strengths

    * Preferences

    * Lifestyle vision

    Impact on Behavior and Lifestyle


    Functional behavioral assessment
    Functional Behavioral Assessment

    • Defined:

      • Functional behavioral assessment is a process for identifying the events that reliably predict and maintain problem behavior.


    Outcomes of a functional behavioral assessment
    Outcomes of a Functional Behavioral Assessment

    • Operationally defined problem behavior(s)

      • By response class

    • Identify routines in which the problem behavior is most and leastlikely to occur

    • Define the antecedent events (triggers; setting events) that predict when the problem behavior is most likely

    • Define the ONE consequence that contributes most to maintaining the problem behavior in that routine.

    • Summary Statement of findings.


    FBA Summary Statement

    Setting Events

    Triggering

    Antecedents

    Problem

    Behavior

    Maintaining

    Consequences

    3

    2

    1

    4

    In room with Noise and/or too many people

    Avoid noise/people

    Allergies

    Head Hit


    Identifying maintaining consequences

    What about

    Power, Control, Choice, Revenge?

    Video

    Identifying Maintaining Consequences

    Given a Problem Behavior

    These are large social constructs that do not help in the design of specific behavior support. Each can be narrowed to “what you get” or “what you avoid.” To make functional assessment functional the outcomes must be very specific and precise.

    Get: Object, Activity, Sensation

    Avoid: Object, Activity, Sensation

    Object/

    Activity

    Social

    Object/

    Activity

    Physiological

    Social

    Physiological

    Precise

    Event

    Precise

    Event

    Precise

    Event

    Precise

    Event

    Precise

    Event

    Precise

    Event


    Many ways to do fba
    Many ways to do FBA

    • Simple/ Typical FBA

      • Interview the person who knows the student best

      • Build a summary statement

        Setting  Antecedent  Prob Beh  Consequence

        Event (Trigger) (Maintaining)

      • Use direct observation to verify the summary statement

    FACTS

    Demo


    Use fba to design effective support the design of effective environments
    Use FBA to Design Effective Support:TheDesign of Effective Environments

    • Problem behaviors are irrelevant

      • Aversive events are removed

      • Access to positive events are more common

    • Problem behaviors are inefficient

      • Appropriate behavioral alternatives available

      • Appropriate behavioral alternatives are taught

    • Problem behaviors are ineffective

      • Problem behaviors are not rewarded

      • Desired behavior ARE rewarded


    Use fba to design effective support
    Use FBA to Design Effective Support:

    • Use the FBA to narrow the challenge

      • Behavior in Routine maintained by Function

    • Help the team produce a plan that is uniquely appropriate, specific and practical.

    • Do this by asking the right questions, not providing the solution.


    Using fba to design effective support the simple bsp
    Using FBA to Design Effective Support:The Simple BSP

    • How can we prevent problem situations?

    • What should we teach as an alternative behavior?

    • How to increase reward of appropriate behavior?

    • How to minimize reward of problem behavior?

    • Are negative consequences for problem behavior needed?

    • Are safety routines needed?

    • What data to collect?

      • Are we doing the plan?

      • Is the plan working?



    Marion:

    3rd grader,

    Asperger’s Syndrome

    Strong preferences for games

    Play with others

    Peer social interaction

    Reprimand during prior class

    Playground

    Scream at / threaten others

    Get access to game or equipment

    Ask for Help

    BSP


    Make Problem Behavior Ineffective

    And Positive Behavior More Effective

    Make Problem Behavior Inefficient

    Make Problem Behavior

    Irrelevant

    Examples of Interventions


    Alice

    Teaching

    Consequences

    Prevention


    Selecting an alternative behavior
    Selecting an “alternative behavior”

    • Alternative behaviors:

      • 1. Produce the SAME outcome as problem behaviors

      • 2. Are socially appropriate

      • 3. Are as (or more) efficient than problem behavior

        • Amount of physical effort

        • Speed of effect

        • Number of time performed to get reward


    Which of the following are appropriate alternative replacement behaviors
    Which of the Following are Appropriate Alternative/Replacement Behaviors?

    • Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping the tasks.

  • Possible Replacement Behaviors:

    • More token rewards for doing tasks

    • Asking for a break from tasks

    • Asking to do something other than the tasks

    • Requesting adult attention

    • Asking to have soda after tasks are done


  • Which of the following are appropriate alternative replacement behaviors1
    Which of the Following are Appropriate Alternative/Replacement Behaviors?

    • Jason is nine and cries when asked to do difficult tasks. The crying is maintained by avoiding or escaping the tasks.

  • Possible Replacement Behaviors:

    • More rewards for doing tasks

    • Asking for a break from tasks

    • Asking to do something other than the tasks

    • Requesting adult attention

    • Asking to have soda after tasks are done


  • Which of the following are appropriate alternative replacement behaviors2
    Which of the Following are Appropriate Alternative/Replacement Behaviors?

    • Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods.

  • Which is the best Replacement Behavior

    • hide under her desk and be ignored

    • sign for “more” to another student

    • take completed work up to show the teacher

    • move to sit by another student

    • engage in stereotypies


  • Which of the following are appropriate alternative replacement behaviors3
    Which of the Following are Appropriate Alternative/Replacement Behaviors?

    • Leslie is 12, has severe intellectual disabilities, does not use words, and hits her head. Head hitting is maintained by adult attention during work periods.

  • Which is the best Replacement Behavior

    • hide under her desk and be ignored

    • sign for “more” to another student

    • take completed work up to show the teacher

    • move to sit by another student

    • engage in stereotypies


  • Mitch
    Mitch

    • 8 years old, no disabilities, highly verbal, good sense of humor

    • ---------------------------------------------------------------

    • Problem behaviors: Talks out, calls other children names, uses teasing voice tone

    • Context: In less structured contexts where he is not getting peer attention (e.g. independent seat work)

    • Primary Maintaining Function: obtain peer attention

    • Setting Events: Extended time without peer contact.


    Mitch

    Desired Behavior

    Typical

    Consequences

    Do work

    Complete work, Get more work

    Problem Behavior

    Setting Events

    Triggering

    Antecedents

    Maintaining

    Consequences

    Minimal peer contact

    Tease, Taunt peers

    Seat work, Alone

    Obtain Attention from peers

    Replacement Behavior

    ?


    Five steps to helping a team build a better plan of support
    Five steps to helping a team build a better plan of support

    • Summarize the FBA

      • Build Agreement

  • Clarify core features of BSP

    • Effective environment

  • Ask questions to define intervention options

    • Not just one option

  • Select options with strong “contextual fit”

    • Not just “effective” but “doable”

  • Define how the BSP will be implemented


  • Minimize the current rewards for problem behavior
    Minimize the current rewards for problem behavior

    • Teacher controlled

      • Teacher Attention (withhold…redirect)

      • Activity

      • Privilege

  • Student controlled

    • Peer attention

  • Activity

    • First in line

    • Four square lead

  • Tangible

    • Food


  • Examples define a fba summary statement and b possible elements of support
    Examples:Define (a) FBA summary statement and (b) possible elements of support

    • Emmit

    • Eric

    • Rayette

    • Jason


    Five steps in leading a team from fba to a behavior support plan
    Five Steps in Leading a Team from FBA to a Behavior Support Plan

    • 1. Summarize FBA

      • Setting Events-> Antecedents -> Behavior -> Consequence

  • 2. Define goals of BSP process:

    • Make problem behavior irrelevant

    • Make problem behavior inefficient

    • Make problem behavior ineffective

    • Do all this in a contextually appropriate manner

  • 3. Lead discussion to identify options

    • Ask questions, don’t give solutions

    • Paraphrase, elaborate, integrate

    • Always bring group back to FBA logic

    • Produce multiple ideas (elements)


  • Leading a team from fba to bsp
    Leading a Team from FBA to BSP

    • 4. Given an array of possible BSP elements, shift discussion to contextual fit.

      • What elements are feasible, acceptable, sustainable?’

      • What is the smallest change that will produce the largest effect?

      • -----------------------------------------------------------

    • Contextual Fit Defined:

      • The extent to which the people who will implement a behavior support plan find the elements of the plan

        • Consistent with their personal values

        • Consistent with the professional skills

        • Consistent with the resources available in the setting

        • Consistent with the available administrative support


    Leading a team from fba to bsp1
    Leading a Team from FBA to BSP

    • 5. Transform ideas for BSP elements into a formal plan for implementation

      • Who will do what, when, and how will we know?


    Do quiz without

    complaints.

    Discussion about

    answers & homework.

    On Mondays and/or

    when up all of the

    night before.

    Daily nongraded quiz

    on previous night’s

    homework

    Verbal protests, slump

    in chair, walks out of

    room.

    Avoids doing quiz &

    homework discussion.

    Turn in with name &

    sit quietly w/o

    interrupting.


    Do quiz without

    complaints.

    Discussion about

    answers & homework.

    Verbal protests, walks out of

    room.

    On Mondays when he has had little sleep

    Daily nongraded quiz

    on previous night’s

    homework

    Avoids doing quiz &

    homework discussion.

    Turn in with name &

    sit quietly w/o

    interrupting.

    Make problem

    behavior irrelevant.

    Make problem

    behavior irrelevant.

    Make problem

    behavior inefficient.

    Make problem

    behavior ineffective.

    Make desired

    behavior effective

    Interventions


    Do quiz without

    complaints.

    Discussion about

    answers & homework.

    On Mondays and/or

    when up all of the

    night before.

    Daily nongraded quiz

    on previous night’s

    homework

    Verbal protests, slump

    in chair, walks out of

    room.

    Avoids doing quiz &

    homework discussion.

    Turn in with name &

    sit quietly w/o

    interrupting.

    Teach options to problem behavior:

    1. Turn in blank

    2. Turn in with name

    3. Turn in with name & first item done.

    4. Turn in with name & 50% completed.

    With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or

    request completion of task next period.

    Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO).

    Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers.

    Give time to review

    homework.

    Give quiet time before starting.

    Give easy “warm-up” task before doing quiz.

    Precorrect behavior options & consequences.


    Outline of a behavior support plan
    Outline of a Behavior Support Plan

    • Assessment (FBA, Person-Centered Plan, Wraparound)

      • Operational Descriptions, Routines, FA Hypotheses

  • Competing Behavior Pathway

  • Prevention

  • Teaching/Education

  • Reward desired behavior

  • Place Problem behavior on extinction

  • Corrective consequences for problem behavior (if needed)

  • De fine safety/emergency procedures (if needed)

  • Evaluation and Monitoring for Improvement

    • Steps for implementation

  • BSPCindy



    Assessing implementation
    Assessing Implementation

    • Behavior Support Plan Weekly Assessment

    • Student:_________________________ Week: _______________________________

    • To what level did we implement the plan we proposed?

    • Low Moderate High

    • 1 2 3 4 5 6

    • To what degree is the plan having a positive impact on the student?

    • Low Moderate High

    • 1 2 3 4 5 6


    Eric: BSP Implementation and Perceived Impact

    Aide

    Quality of Implementation 6 + +

    Teacher

    Implementation

    Quality of Behavior 6=+

    Perceived Impact


    Summary
    Summary

    • Invest in building consensus around FBA summary statement.

    • Recruit strategies that are local, practical, but still consistent with FBA…(Lead don’t tell). Recruit local knowledge

    • Using Competing Pathway to build efficient plans (the smallest changes that produce the largest effect)

    • Ensure that the plan includes procedures for getting implementation to occur.

    • Always include procedures for evaluation

      • Are we doing what we said we would do?

      • Is the process having an effect on the student?


    163 92

    39 35

    35 27

    38 13

    245 167


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