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Aging, Memory and Alzheimer’s Disease. Kinga Szigeti, MD, PhD. Aging and Alzheimer’s disease. The biggest challenge in AD: it is superimposed on normal aging Insidious onset No blood test; diagnosis is putting a puzzle together. Major Public Health Problem. Single domain amnestic

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Aging and alzheimer s disease
Aging and Alzheimer’s disease

  • The biggest challenge in AD: it is superimposed on normal aging

  • Insidious onset

  • No blood test; diagnosis is putting a puzzle together

Major Public

Health Problem

Single domain amnestic

-Forgetting where we put things

-Forgetting appointments

-Repeatiing questions or conversations

Red-yellow = diff small-diff big

Multidomain Z score <-2

Mild AD MMSE 20-26

PET metabolism and amyloid imaging

Symptoms late in the disease: cells are damaged

We cannot recover nerve cells; goal is to prevent

We need biomarkers before the symptoms start

Alzheimer disease as a model of complex genetics
Alzheimer disease as a model of complex genetics

Not two patients are exactly alike

App story mendelian genetics
APP storyMendelian genetics


Trisomy 21

Partial trisomy 21 not including APP-no AD

Candidate gene app
Candidate gene: APP

  • Precursor protein to amyloid in AD brain

  • Mutations found

  • Disease and mutation went together within families

  • Interestingly some of these mutations affect sites where gamma cleavage occurs


Chr 14

Chr 1

Amyloid hypothesis: genetic confirmation


40 and 42




Mutations in APP regulatory sequences

Research at the university at buffalo
Research at the University at Buffalo

Olfactory receptor association with AD age at onset

Copy number variation

Pieces of chromosomes (genetic material)

Missing or in extra copies

Research at the University at Buffalo

Deletion upstream from CREB1 association with AD

CHRFAM7A association with AD

Raminathan et al,PlosOne

Namenda might work better

is this group

The goal prevention
The goal: prevention

  • Age 65 well visit/ part of the prevention panel

  • Primary care physician asks about memory issues

  • Screening memory test

  • Blood test for genetic risk factors (gene chip)

  • Assess family history of dementia

    Then risk stratification:

    Low risk Monitor

    Intermediate risk Consider amyloid imaging then Rx

    High Risk Amyloid imaging then Rx

The goal personalized treatment
The goal: personalized treatment

  • If memory problem is present:

  • Clinical workup

  • Gene chip to determine which drugs work best

Until we have the breakthrough admdc patient care
Until we have the breakthrough: ADMDC patient care

  • Diagnose early

  • Modify risk factors to slow progression

  • Treat to change slope of decline

  • Buys us time

  • Gives years of close to normal life