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Objectives:. 1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures. 2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties. 3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules.

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Objectives:

1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures.

2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties.

3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules.

4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.


Daily Objective

I can define matter.

I can identify and distinguish between the classes of matter.


What is Matter?


What does all matter have in common?


What does all matter have in common?Atoms!


What is Matter?

  • One or more atoms that take up space and has mass.

  • Emphasized that all matter’s properties and changes are due to the chemical make-up and interactions on the atomic level.


Classification of Matter

What are some terms associated with the classification of matter?


Classification of Matter


Classification of Matter

Terms:element, compound, mixture, substance, homogenous mixture, and heterogenous mixture.

  • Define/illustrate each term above.

    2. Use a graphic organizer to show how these terms are connected to matter and each other.


Infinite Campus Update

  • Density Lab

  • Scientific Measurement Exam


Classification of Matter


Classification of Matter


Elements

  • Smallest type of matter that maintains it properties.

  • Each element represents a different atom (natural or synthetic)

  • A symbol is used to represent each element.


Elements


  • Compound

  • Chemical Combination of substances in a fixed amount.

  • Each compound has a unique chemical formula.

  • Ex. Sodium chloride = NaCl

  • The chemical combination of substances produces new properties.

  • Sodium (Na) + Chlorine (Cl) = Salt (NaCl)


Mixture

  • Physically mixed together, so each matter’s properties are preserved.

  • Use matter’s individual properties to physically separate from one another.

  • Mixture’s composition can vary.


Heterogenous MixuresObserve multiple phases (parts) because the substances do not mix well.


Homogenous MixturesSubstances mix so well it looks like one phase.


Homongenous Mixtures

Also called solutions.

Solutions:

-Solute: what is dissolved

-Solvent: what dissolves

Solubility= the ability of the solute to dissolve in the solvent.

.

NaCl + H2O


Classification of Matter


Exit Slip

  • Classify the following examples two ways:

  • Substance or Mixture?

  • Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture?

  • gasoline at the pump

    (C8H18 + other hydrocarbons)

    2. glucose (C12H22O11)

    3. aluminum foil

    4. sand


Classifying Matter:Substances vs. Mixtures


Classifying Matter:Substances vs. Mixtures


Classification of Matter


Exit Slip

  • Classify the following examples two ways:

  • Substance or Mixture?

  • Element, Compound, Heterogenous mixture or Homogenous mixture?

  • gasoline at the pump

  • salt you garnish fries with

  • aluminum foil

  • sand


Infinite Campus Update

Density Lab

Scientific Measurement Exam


Classifying Matter

  • O2


Classifying Matter

  • represents an atom

  • physical combination of substances

  • multiple phases

  • one phase

  • chemical combination of substances

  • same composition from sample to sample

  • individual properties are preserved when substances combine

  • varied composition from sample to sample

  • individual properties are lost and new properties are gained when substances combine

  • chemical formula

  • solution

  • atom’s symbol

  • substances dissolve in one another.


Substances

Element

Compound

Substance


Mixtures

Homogenous Mix

Heterogenous Mix

Mixtures


Scientific Measurement Exam


Objectives:

1. I can classify matter into substances and mixtures.

2. I can identify and distinguish between physical and chemical properties.

3. I can identify and distinguish between the two types of forces that affect the nature of molecules.

4. I can understand and distinguish between physical and chemical changes.

5. I can identify techniques used to separate mixtures.


Infinite Campus Update

  • Density Lab

  • Scientific Measurement Exam


Classification of Matter


Classification of Matter Lab


Classification of Matter Lab Questions


Conclusion:Classification of Matter Lab

  • What was most beneficial about this lab?

  • What was most challenging about this lab?

  • How has this lab helped you make important connections and distinctions between the classes of matter?


Classifying Matter Lab

  • Students with peers observe various samples of matter and classify them as an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixture.


Scientific Measurement Exam


Classifying Matter

1. Classify each as either an element, compound, homo mixture, or hetero mixture

a. soil

b. orange juice with no pulp

c. copper wire

d. car gasoline (C8H18)

2. What is the difference between a compound and a mixture?


Bell Ringer: Matter

  • What is the difference between:

  • substances and mixtures

  • compounds and mixtures

    2. Classify each of the following examples:

  • sugar

  • sugar water

  • gold ring

  • Iron rust (FeO)

  • Italian dressing


Classification of Matter


Classifying Matter Lab

  • Students re-assess their classification of matter lab examples.


Classifying Matter Lab

  • O2 = compound

    Why?

  • Because the subscript number represents atoms that are chemically bonded.

  • In this example, two atoms of oxygen are chemically bonded together.


Chemical vs. Physical Change

Chemical Change:

  • Matter’s chemical make-up changes.

  • New matter is produced with new properties

  • Ex. Iron Rust (FeO)

    Physical Change:

  • Matter’s chemical make-up stays the same.

  • Matter is the same, so most properties are the same.

  • Ex. Lemonade


Intramolecular Forces

Forces within a compound that holds the atoms

together. Also called chemical bonds.

H2O compound


Types of Chemical Changes

  • Combustion

  • Decaying

  • Digesting

  • Baking

  • Neutralization (acidic and basic chemicals)

  • Growing

  • Spoiled


Physical Changes

  • Physical process

  • Substance(s) chemical make-up is preserved so no new substance is produced.

  • Properties are preserved

    Ex. Making Lemonade


Intermolecular Forces

Forces between compounds in a sample of matter. (group forces)


Types of Physical Changes

  • Most states of matter

  • Breaks

  • Dissolves

  • Crushes

  • Cuts

  • Absorbs


Infinite Campus 9/10/12

  • Classifying Matter Lab

  • Classification of Matter Quiz


What kind of forces are affected ?

.


Classification of Matter Quiz


Mixture Separation Lab

  • Students work in groups to determine what physical processes they can use to separate out each substance in a given mixture.

  • They will design and carry out their experiment to successfully separate out each substance in the mixture.

  • Reiterate the concept that substances in a mixture maintain their physical properties because their chemical make-up is preserved.


Mixture Separation Lab (9/11)

Purpose: To design and carry-out an experiment that will separate substances from a mixture.


Homongenous Mixtures

  • Also called solutions.

  • Solutions:

    -Solute: what is dissolved

    -Solvent: what dissolves

    .


Solubility of Mixtures

Solubility: How well substances dissolve

in one another.

Sciencephoto.com

Chemistryland.com


Physical Separation of Mixtures:Extraction

1. Extraction- separating substances in a heterogenous mixture from one another based on their unique physical properties..

Physically separate oil

from water because

they are not soluble in one another.

How could we separate

iron fillings and sand?


Physical Separation of Mixtures:Filtration

Commonly used to separate a solid from a liquid in a heterogenous mixture due to differences in size or solubility.


Physical Separation of MixturesDistillation

Separation of liquids in a mixture by their differences in boiling points. Ex. Ethanol (78 0C) and Water (1000C)


Chromotography

  • Separates homogenous mixtures based on solubility.

  • Chromotography has two phases:

  • -Stationary Phase: solid

  • Mobile Phase: liquid or gas

  • Substances in mixture will separate

  • based on their degree of solubility

  • toward the mobile phase.


Physical Separation Techniques


pre-AP Infinite Campus (9/10)

  • Classifying Matter Lab

  • Mixture Separation Lab


Bell Ringer

Identify as a chemical or physical change

  • moldy cheese

  • dew in the morning

  • leaves turning colors in the fall

  • sublimation of dry ice.

  • recycling aluminum

  • combustion of fossil fuels


Changes in Matter and Forces

.


Phase Changes


Matter and Energy

I can….

  • Establish a relationship between changes in matter, the forces involved, and the flow of energy.


Bell Ringer

1. Using your states of matter table what is the relationship between the following:

  • intermolecular forces and kinetic energy?

    2. Complete the table below using the states of matter table and phases of matter diagram


Phases of Matter


Phase Changes


Thermochemistry

  • Study of energy changes when matter undergoes a physical or chemical change.

  • In this unit, we will just apply energy changes when matter undergoes physical changes.


Particles in Matter

  • The particles that make-up matter are in constant motion.

  • The particles speed of motion depends upon?

    energy and intermolecular forces


HeatEnergy

Heat Energy (q) =

Energy that is transferred between matter of different temperatures.

Unit for Energy: Joules (J) or calories (cal)

1 J = 0.2390 cal

Energy does not have mass or volume, therefore it is NOT classified as matter.

How does heat energy flow between objects?

Always flow from hot to cold objects


HeatEnergy Flow

Heat energy flowing between objects:

System:

The matter you are studying/measuring.

Surrounding :

The matter (environment) around the system.

Endothermic Process:

When heat is absorbed by the system.

Exothermic Process:

When heat is released by the system.


Heat Energy

What does heat enegy alter?

Heat Energy


Heat Energy

  • Heat energy alters the:

    -speed of particles

    -strength of the intermolecular forces

Heat Energy


Temperature Scales

  • Temperature only measures the heat energy that alters the speed of particles.

  • Scientist prefer the Kelvin (K) and Celsius (oC) scales

Visionlearning.com


Molecular Kinetic Theory:

Establishes a relationship between physical changes, intermolecular forces, and energy flow.

OC

Heat Energy


Physical Change: Energy Diagrams

Enthalpy (H):The heat content of a system at constant pressure.

H: change in heat content before and after a change

H = heat energy (q)

catalog.flatworldknowledge.com


Physical Change: Energy Diagrams

  • Exothermic:

  • heat content before change< heat content after change

  • heat energy (change in heat content) is negative, q-

  • Endothermic:

  • heat content before change> heat content after change

  • heat energy (change in heat content) is positive, q+

catalog.flatworldknowledge.com


Conservation of Matter and Energy

Matter:

Matter undergoes

changes, but the atoms are conserved as a whole or as parts.

Energy:

Energy is also conserved during changes that matter undergoes.

If energy increases for a system, then its surroundings must decrease in energy by the same amount.


Pre-AP

  • The following slides pertain only to pre-AP chemistry classes.


Heat Capacity

Heat Capacity:

The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a substance 1.0 oC.

What does heat capacity depend upon?


Specific Heats of Common Substances


Specific Heat Capacity

Specific Heat Capcity:

The amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of the substance 1 0C.


Heat Calculation

  • The temperature of a 95.4 g piece of copper increases from 25.0oC to 48.0oC when the copper absorbs 849 Joules of heat. What is the specific heat of copper?


Heat Calculations

  • How much heat is required to raise the temperature of 250.0g of mercury to 52oC?


Bell Ringer

  • What is the difference between heat energy (q) and specific heat energy (C)?

  • When 150.0 J of energy is absorbed by a 42.1 g sample of silver the temperature increases by 15.0oC. What is the specific heat of silver?

    3. If an 8.8 gram sample of aluminum increases in temperature from 25oC to 55oC how much heat was absorbed by the aluminum sample?


Specific Heats of Common Substances


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