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Cold War and After. History since Vietnam. Margaret Thatcher. British prime minister Free trade and less government regulation of business Close relationship with United States and U.S. foreign policy Assertion of United Kingdom’s military power. Mikhail Gorbachev.

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Cold war and after

Cold War and After

History since Vietnam


Margaret thatcher
Margaret Thatcher

  • British prime minister

  • Free trade and less government regulation of business

  • Close relationship with United States and U.S. foreign policy

  • Assertion of United Kingdom’s military power


Mikhail gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev

  • Glasnost and perestroika: openness and economic reform

  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

  • Last president of Soviet Union


Deng xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping

  • Reformed Communist China’s economy to a market economy leading to rapid economic growth

  • Continued communist control of government


Indira gandhi
Indira Gandhi

  • Closer relationship between India and the Soviet Union during the Cold War

  • Developed nuclear program


Regional setting for the indian independence movement
Regional setting for the Indian independence movement

  • Indian sub-continent

  • British India – British controlled since 1763

  • India

  • Pakistan (formerly West Pakistan)

  • Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan)

  • Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon)


Indian independence movement
Indian Independence movement

  • Leadership of Mohandas Gandhi

  • Role of civil disobedience and passive resistance

  • Political division along Hindu-Muslim lines – Pakistan/India

  • Republic of India

    • World’s largest democratic nation

    • Federal system, giving many powers to the states


Indian democracy
Indian democracy

  • Jawaharlal Nehru, a close associate of Gandhi, supported western-style industrialization

  • 1950 Constitution sought to prohibit caste discrimination

  • Ethnic and religious differences caused problems in the development of India as a democratic nation

  • New economic development has helped to ease financial problems of the nation


Independence movement in africa
Independence movement in Africa

  • Right to self-determination (U.N. charter)

  • Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War II

  • Pride in African cultures and heritage

  • Resentment of imperial rule and economic exploitation

  • Loss of colonies by Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal; influence of superpower rivalry during the Cold War


Independence movements and subsequent development efforts
Independence movements and subsequent development efforts

  • West Africa: Peaceful transition

  • Algeria: War of Independence from France

  • Kenya (Britain): Violent struggle under leadership of Jomo Kenyatta

  • South Africa: Black South Africans’ struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of the Republic of South Africa


Jomo kenyatta
Jomo Kenyatta

  • After the British granted independence to Kenya in 1963, this man became the first prime minister and worked hard to unite the various ethnic and language groups inside the country. Once Kenya was a republic, he was the first president.


Nelson mandela
Nelson Mandela

  • This leader of the ANC at first supported non violent methods of achieving equality in South Africa but later turned to more violent methods. He was arrested and spent 27 years in prison. Once South Africa held free elections, he was elected the first black president.


A partheid
Apartheid

  • This was the system of laws that separated the white from the black South Africans.


Desmond tutu
Desmond Tutu

  • Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, this Anglican Archbishop supported economic sanctions against his own country and other nonviolent means to challenge the system of racial segregation in South Africa.


Mandates in the middle east
Mandates in the Middle East

  • Established by the League of Nations

  • Granted independence after World War II

  • Resulted in Middle East conflicts created by religious differences


French and british mandates in the middle east
French and British mandates in the Middle East

  • Syria-French

  • Lebanon-French

  • Jordon (originally Transjordan)- British

  • Palestine (a part became independent as the State of Israel)-British


Israel the middle east
Israel & the Middle East

  • Zionist Movement

    • Theodor Herzl 1897

  • Balfour Declaration

    • GB support of a

      Jewish homeland

      in Palestine

  • Holocaust Realities

    • Global sympathy

    • Displaced persons

    • Immigration

  • UN Resolution

    • Palestine divided

    • Arabs reject plan

    • Israel declares independence

      • 5/14/48 David Ben-Gurion


The arab israeli wars the struggle for existence
The Arab – Israeli WarsThe Struggle for Existence

  • 1948 vs. Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt & Iraq

    • Israelis win

    • Palestinian refugee camps

    • Egypt seizes Gaza & Jordan seizes West Bank

  • 1967 vs. Egypt =

    Six Day War

    • Egypt plans attacks with Soviet supplied weaponry

    • Israel strikes 1st

    • Israelis gain Jerusalem, West Bank, Golan Hts. & Sinai

  • 1973 vs. Egypt =

    Yom Kippur War

    • Borders remain

      Whose land is it?

      What should be done to maintain peace?


Golda meir
Golda Meir

  • Prime Minister of Israel

  • After initial setbacks, led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War

  • Sought support of United States


Golda meir1
Golda Meir

  • This Russian-Jew emigrated to the United States and later to Israel where she served as ambassador to the Soviet Union, minister of labor, foreign minister, and finally prime minister of Israel.


Arab israeli conflict
Arab – Israeli Conflict

  • ’72 Munich Olympics

    • Black September

      • Terrorist Group

      • Captures 11 Israeli Athletes

      • Murders all 11

  • PLO

    • Yasir Arafat

    • Palestinian State

    • Terror

  • Intifada: ’87 - today

    • Civil Disobedience + Uprisings

    • Pressure Israel to recognize Palestinian rights


Camp david accords
Camp David Accords

  • This 1979 agreement was the first signed document between Israel and an Arab nation and officially ended hostilities between Egypt and Israel.



Arab israeli peace attempts
Arab – Israeli Peace Attempts Menachem Begin in 1978

  • ’79 Camp David Accords

    • Anwar Sadat + Menachem Begin

    • Israeli recognition

    • Sinai back to Egypt

    • Palestinian Rights

    • ’81 Sadat assassinated

  • ’93 Oslo Accords

    • Yitzak Rabin + Yasir Arafat

    • Palestinian self-rule in Gaza + West Bank

    • Rabin assassinated ‘95


Yasir arafat
Yasir Menachem Begin in 1978 Arafat

  • This person was awarded a joint Nobel Peace prize for his work at negotiating a peace with Israel in 1993. Unfortunately, another intifada began in 2000 and went for over a year. As head of the PLO, he eventually became the head of a semi-independent area called the Palestinian Authority.


Yitzak rabin
Yitzak Menachem Begin in 1978 Rabin

  • This Israeli was awarded a joint Nobel Peace prize for his work at negotiating a peace with the Palestinians in 1993. He was assassinated by a Jewish student who did not support his peace policies.


Ayatollah khomeini
Ayatollah Khomeini Menachem Begin in 1978

  • This fundamentalist Shia cleric from Iran took over the Shah’s government and restored strict Islamic law to guide all areas of Iranian life.


Gamal abdul nasser
Gamal Abdul Nasser Menachem Begin in 1978

  • President of Egypt

  • Nationalized Suez Canal

  • Established relationship with Soviet Union

  • Built Aswan High Dam


Cold war crisis points
Cold War Crisis Points Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Suez Crisis ’56

    • Nasser nationalizes canal

    • Egypt-Israeli War

    • GB + F seize canal

    • GB + F + I v. E + USSR?

    • No US support

      • Canal returned

    • Crisis Averted


Saddam hussein
Saddam Hussein Menachem Begin in 1978

  • This Sunni leader took control of the Iraqi government in 1979 and launched an attack on Iran in 1980 and invaded Kuwait in 1990. Captured by coalition forces in December, 2003, he was tried and executed in 2006.


Persian gulf war
Persian Gulf War Menachem Begin in 1978

  • This conflict occurred when the leader of Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. The United States led an international force that destroyed most of Iraq’s armed forces but failed to spark an internal uprising to depose the leader.


Tiananmen square
Tiananmen Square Menachem Begin in 1978

  • This pro-democracy and freedom demonstration in April 1989 stunned Chinese officials and led to a massive military crackdown.


Judaism
Judaism Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Monotheism

  • Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct

  • Torah: Written records and beliefs of the Jews


Christianity
Christianity Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Monotheism

  • Jesus as Son of God

  • Life after death

  • New Testament: Life and teachings of Jesus

  • Establishment of Christian doctrines by early church councils


Islam
Islam Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Monotheism

  • Muhammad, the prophet

  • Qur’an (Koran)

  • Five Pillars of Islam

  • Mecca and Medina


Buddhism
Buddhism Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)

  • Four Noble Truths

  • Eightfold Path to Enlightenment

  • Spread of Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia, resulting from Asoka’s missionaries and their writings


Hinduism
Hinduism Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Many forms of one God

  • Reincarnation: Rebirth based upon karma

  • Karma: Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences


Geographic distribution of world s major religions
Geographic distribution of world’s major religions Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Judaism: Concentrated in Israel and North America

  • Christianity: Concentrated in Europe and North and South America

  • Islam: Concentrated in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia

  • Hinduism: Concentrated in India

  • Buddhism: Concentrated in East and Southeast Asia


Migrations of refugees and others
Migrations of refugees and others Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Refugees as an issue in international conflicts

  • Migrations of “guest workers” to European cities


Ethnic and religious conflicts
Ethnic and religious conflicts Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Middle East

  • Northern Ireland

  • Balkans

  • Horn of Africa

  • South Asia


Impact of new technologies
Impact of new Technologies Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communications

  • Genetic engineering and bioethics


Contrasts between developed and developing nations
Contrasts between developed and developing nations Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Geographic locations of major developed and developing countries

  • Economic conditions

  • Social conditions (literacy, access to health care)

  • Population size and rate of growth


Environmental challenges
Environmental Challenges Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Pollution

  • Loss of habitat

  • Global climate change

  • Economic development

  • Rapid population growth


Social challenges
Social Challenges Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Poverty

  • Poor health

  • Illiteracy

  • Famine

  • Migration


Relationship between economic and political freedom
Relationship between economic and political freedom Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Free market economies produce rising standards of living and an expanding middle class, which produces growing demands for political freedoms and individual rights.

  • Recent examples include Taiwan and South Korea


Economic interdependence
Economic Interdependence Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Role of rapid transportation, communication, and computer networks

  • Rise and influence of multinational corporations

  • Changing role of international boundaries

  • Regional integration, e.g., European Union

  • Trade agreements, e.g., North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WTO)

  • International organizations, e.g., United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF)


Examples of international terrorism
Examples of international terrorism Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Munich Olympics – Jewish Olympians killed by PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization)

  • Terrorist attacks in the United States (e.g., 9/11/2001) motivated by extremism (Osama bin Laden)

  • Car bombings

  • Suicide bombers

  • Airline hijackers


Governmental responses to terrorist activities
Governmental responses to terrorist activities Menachem Begin in 1978

  • Surveillance

  • Review of privacy rights

  • Security at ports and airports


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