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Standardization and Research. Prof. Dr. Christine Giger Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich http://www.geoit.ethz.ch/. © Atlas der Schweiz - interaktiv. Standards?!. Switzerland?!. CZ = CH ?!. Hungary?. Swiss Newspaper (Tages-Anzeiger 14.8.02). Slovak Republic!.

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standardization and research

Standardizationand Research

Prof. Dr. Christine Giger

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich

http://www.geoit.ethz.ch/

© Atlas der Schweiz - interaktiv

standards
Standards?!

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

switzerland
Switzerland?!

CZ = CH ?!

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

swiss newspaper tages anzeiger 14 8 02

Hungary?

Swiss Newspaper (Tages-Anzeiger 14.8.02)

Slovak Republic!

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

access to geodata
Access to Geodata!

Examples: Institute for Cartography, ETH Zurich

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

information communities
Information Communities

“An Information Community is a collection of people (e.g. a government agency, a profession, a group of researchers in the same discipline, etc.) who … share a common digital geographic information language and share common spatial feature definitions. This implies a common world view as well as common abstractions, feature representations, and metadata.”

(according to Open GIS Consortium, 1999, www.opengis.org)

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

different semantics
Different Semantics

In any application of spatial information:

There is a demand for integrating spatial data from differentsources, which belong to differentinformationcommunities.

Usually this integration is non-trivial because of the different semantics used for the spatial data in different information communities.

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

example urban planning
Example: Urban Planning
  • We need different features and attributes from different data sources, amongst others:
    • Citizens’ and politicians’ opinions on street network
    • Basic spatial data from official survey
    • Possible paths for traffic from private supplier for car navigation data
    • Information on lane surface properties from road maintenance

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

example spatial features and attributes
Example: spatial features and attributes
  • The data on streets should be characterized by:
    • Purpose and notion
    • Geometry
    • Accuracy and co-ordinate system

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

example what is a street
Example : What is a street?

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

problem
Problem
  • There is not ONE geometry or description for a spatial object
  • How to describe semantics of spatial objects in a formal way?
  • How to provide services for data transfer, data integration, quality checks, etc.?

Approaches:

  • CH: INTERLIS
  • ISO/TC211: conceptual schema language
  • Science: Ontology

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

what is an ontology
What is an Ontology?
  • In Philosophy:
    • A science or study of being: specifically, a branch of metaphysics relating to the nature and relations of being; a particular system according to which problems of the nature of being are investigated
  • In Artificial Intelligence / Computer Science:
    • A theory concerning the kinds of entities and specifically the kinds of abstract entities that are to be admitted to a language system.
    • OR simply:A specification of a conceptualization.

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

research topics in geoinformation science
Research topics in Geoinformation Science
  • … which are related to ISO/TC211 standards
    • use of Ontologies for spatial data processing
    • Image semantics
    • Interoperable Services
    • Location-based Services
    • Handling of spatio-temporal data
    • 3-D Information systems
    • Data Usability
    • Ontology and Metadata
    • Spatial Data Infrastructures

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

gi standards
(GI-) Standards

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

benefits for research
Benefits for Research
  • According to the Swiss experience(mainly during the INTERLIS development),standards:
    • provide a reliable basis
    • prevent from re-inventing the wheel
    • offer interesting research topics (during development)
    • may offer an opportunity to disseminate know-how and research results

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

benefits for standardization
Benefits for Standardization
  • Today‘s research results (in GI Science and Technology) will influencethe market in 5-7 years
  • Students who use standards in projects, thesis, and courses:
    • are well-educated experts who appreciate the standards‘ usability
    • help to disseminatethe standards and enforce their market presence
  • Research institutions provide neutral experts to test, evaluate, and improve existing standards

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

conclusion
Conclusion
  • Keep close contact between Standardization and Research!

Prof. Dr. Ch. Giger - Standardization and Research

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