Ecosystem approach to management
Download
1 / 35

Ecosystem approach to management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 125 Views
  • Uploaded on

Ecosystem approach to management. What is Ecosystem Management? The ecosystem Past Resource Management Approach New ecosystem management approach Examples Using Natural Processes under Ecosystem Management Disturbance Succession Important types of natural disturbance.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Ecosystem approach to management' - nardo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Ecosystem approach to management
Ecosystem approach to management

  • What is Ecosystem Management?

    • The ecosystem

    • Past Resource Management Approach

    • New ecosystem management approach

    • Examples

  • Using Natural Processes under Ecosystem Management

    • Disturbance

    • Succession

    • Important types of natural disturbance


Epic of Gilgamesh – ancient Mesopotamia

Social systems developed by the civilization far outstretched the constraints of ecological systems


I what is ecosystem management
I. What is Ecosystem Management?

A. The Ecosystem = All the organisms in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that a flow of energy leads to trophic structure, biotic diversity and material cycles.

“Any land management system that seeks to protect populations of all native species, perpetuates natural disturbance…at the regional scale, adopts a planning time line of centuries, and allows human use at levels that do not result in long-term ecological degradation.”


Components of the ecosystem
Components of the ecosystem

  • Energy flow – thermal energy, primary production, secondary production

  • Nutrient flow – organic detritus (detritovores extract soluble substances)

  • Abiotic – latitude/longitude, temp., moisture, wind, exposure, elevation, geology, geography, water current, salinity, amount of oxygen

  • Biotic – species in the community


B past resource management approach
B. Past Resource Management Approach

  • Multiple use – Pinchot’s resource conservation ethic

  • Resource Management -Wildlife managers/ fisheries/ forestry

    • Manipulate processes of ecosystems to boost desired species’ populations

    • Treat populations as commodities within ecosystems

    • Separate Agencies manage separate populations

    • Federal land use – value part of the ecosystem as a resource

    • Management UNIT =


C new ecosystem management approach
C. New Ecosystem Management Approach

  • Recognizes the interrelated nature of air, land, water and all living beings rather than geopolitical boundaries and departmental divisions.

  • Calls for creative partnerships that look at natural boundaries, such as watersheds, as the unit of management.

  • It was endorsed at the fifth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CoP 5 in Nairobi, Kenya; May 2000) as the primary framework for action under the Convention.


An ecosystem approach involves the following principles
An ecosystem approach involves the following principles:

  • Includes the whole system, and not just parts of it

  • Based on a broad spatial and temporal scale

  • Focuses on interrelationships among the components of the environment and between living and non-living things

  • Includes consideration of the natural environment, society and economy & emphasizes collaborative decision making

  • Is based on natural geographic units (defined by ecological boundaries) such as watersheds


Ecosystem management holistic approach
Ecosystem management = Holistic approach

  • Considers humans and all living components as one interacting system

  • Seeks sustainable human use

  • Emphasizes interaction between stakeholders

    • Land owners: private individuals, industry, county/state, tribal lands, federal lands,



D examples
D. Examples succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

Each unit is represented by an ecosystem team which has developed its own biologically- based strategy. The Service has identified and defined boundaries for 53 ecosystem units by grouping the USGS defined watersheds -


1 northwest forest plan nwfp
1) Northwest Forest Plan (NWFP) succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

  • http://www.fs.fed.us/r5/nwfp/

  • Connectivity

  • Landscape heterogeneity

  • Structural complexity

  • Integrity of aquatic systems

  • Plan represents an agreement among diverse stakeholders to manage across wide forest and insitutional boundaries


2 greater yellowstone ecosystem
2) Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

  • Number of various agencies governing the management of the lands

  • 2 national parks: Yellowstone and Grand Teton (parts of Wyoming, Montana & Idaho)

  • 3 national wildlife refuges

  • Headwaters of 3 major river systems: Yellowstone, Snake and Green Rivers


3 bocas del toro panama
3) Bocas del Toro, Panama succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

  • http://www.iucn.org/themes/cem/ourwork/projects/panama.html


Ii using natural processes under ecosystem management
II. Using Natural Processes under Ecosystem Management: succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

  • Management must protect ecological processes that determine the characteristics of the ecosystem

    Ecological Processes:

  • Disturbance

  • Succession

  • Important types of natural disturbance


A natural disturbance
A. Natural Disturbance succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

  • A force that alters a community and usually removes organisms from it, but is an integral part of ecosystem structure/function

    • Intermediate level: positive effects (increase heterogeneity) reduces competition, increases biodiversity


B succession
B. Succession succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

  • There is an impact of established species upon their environments…causes changes in environmental conditions.

time

optimal

for species

#3

optimal

for species

#1

optimal

for species

#2

environmental

conditions

N


Primary community: arises in a lifeless area succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

Secondary community: occurs after disturbance


Mature forest – nearing climax succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

Secondary forest


1 fire as a natural disturbance
1) Fire as a natural disturbance succeed when human welfare & economic considerations are taken into account

  • Habitat heterogeneity, amount of edge

  • Species Diversity

  • Nutrient uptake

  • Nutrient loss from soil

  • Erosion and surface runoff

  • Stream flow rates

  • Grazing and browsing of ungulates

  • Establishment of early successional species


Prescribed Burns -the controlled application of fire to existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

  • suppressed fires can result in overgrowth of non-native shrubs, trees and grasses

  • Native, fire-resistant species survive –some even dependant upon fire

  • Leaf litter & undergrowth removed -helps to remove the “fuel” for future fires

  • Problem: potential to spread to inhabited areas – out of control…


Prairie ecosystem: existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

In a study comparing an area burned in April after the snows melt to an area unburned for 25 years, there was a three to fourfold increase in forbs (flowers) for 1 to 2 growing seasons.


Effects of flooding
Effects of Flooding existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

  • Natural flooding – increases habitat heterogeneity


Damn Dams! existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

Effects of Dams on ecosystems


3 herbivores small scale disturbance agents
3). Herbivores – small scale disturbance agents existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

  • Regulate habitat, energy flow, nutrient cycling, plant nutrition

  • prevent vertical development, reduce litter and soil nutrients


4 predation
4. Predation existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.


Related concept intermediate disturbance hypothesis

Number of Species existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

or diversity

Predation

Low

High

Related concept: Intermediate disturbance hypothesis


Experiment 1 artificial ponds
Experiment 1: Artificial ponds existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

  • Cattle tanks

  • Stock with leaf litter, plants, invertebrates

  • 1200 newly hatched larvae of a mix of the 6 anuran species (150 to 300 each species)

  • Predators: 0, 2, 4, 8 adult newts


Temporary pond amphibians
Temporary pond amphibians existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

  • Predators … salamanders

    • Newts (Notophthalmus)

      • adults and larvae

  • Prey: anuran larvae


Effect of newt predation
Effect of newt predation existing naturally occurring fuels under specified environmental conditions, which allows the fire to be confined to a predetermined area.

  • 0 newts

    • Scaphiopus dominates, Hyla rare

  • 2 newts

    • Scaphiopus dominates, Hyla crucifer increases

    • Maximal mass of anuran adults; Maximal evenness

  • 4 newts

    • Hyla crucifer & Scaphiopus equally abundant

  • 8 newts

    • 60% Hyla crucifer, all others rare


ad